Sequence of fabric construction –
Interlacement of yarns is use to construct a fabric. These sets of yarns run lengthwise and crosswise. A close examination of any one of these yarns will reveal the fibrous substance. There is a logical development of raw material into finished consumers’ goods. Studying textile in the interesting sequence of “fiber to yarn to fabric” helps understand the construction and ultimate qualities of the fabrics.
Here are the steps of fiber to yarn to fabric :
- Fiber,which make yarn by spinning or twisting it.
- Yarn, which make fabric by weaving or knitting.
- Fabric, which by various finishing processes becomes fishined consumers’ goods.
This how fiber to yarn to fabric is made.
Kinds of Fibers –
The textile industry uses many different kinds of fibers as its raw materials. Fibers have acquired varied degrees of importance in recent years. Broadly, textile fibers are of two groups namely, natural and man-made.
Natural Fibers –
Natural fibers are obtain from nature in fibrous form. All natural fibers (except silk from undamaged cocoons) are short and measured in inches. These are staple fibers. Even more, these are classify into four groups depending on their source and chemical composition. These are animal/protein fibers, plant/cellulose fibers, rubber and mineral fibers.
Animal / Protein Fibers –
These are hair fibers (on basis of the animal from which they are obtain) and extruded fibers. The larvae of silk moth extrude a continuous filament from their mouth to form a cocoon. Furthermore, the cocoon is process to recover silk fibers.
Plant / Cellulosic Fibers –
These are subcategories according to the part of the plant that produces the fiber. Thus, there exist the categories of seed hair fibers, bast or stem fibers, leaf fibers and the miscellaneous category.
Natural Rubber –
The rubber tree process the latex. The stem is slash to take out and convert the thick milky exudate.
Natural Mineral –
Asbestos is a natural mineral fiber. It is obtain from a variety of rock that contain silicates of magnesium and calcium. It is inherently non-flammable but is being replace because of its carcinogenic properties.
Man-made Fibers –
Man made fibers are derive from various sources. Technologists make these under control conditions. Man-made fibers are extrude as filaments. Filament fibers are long and therefore can be cut into staple length. There are three groups depending on their raw material, that is, regenerating fibers, synthetic fibers and inorganic fibers.
Regenerated Fibers –
Here, raw material are dissolve through a series of chemical reactions. Then consequently, extrudes to produce a continuous fiber strand. The starting material and the fiber have the same chemical polymer. Raw materials which are obtain from nature include small cotton fibers (linters), wood , milk protein and other diverse substances. Their original form cannot be use. Henceforth the need for reforming or regenerating them. The first regenerated fiber was rayon in 1905 . After that acetate , another cellulosic fiber. Several protein fibers have also been experiment with.
Synthetic Fibers –
These are fibers produce from a chemical to form a polymer not previously existing in a natural state. The first synthetic fiber was nylon in 1938.
Inorganic Fibers –
There are some inorganic substances which do not have the conventional long chain molecules. However, it is possible to soften them by heat application and then form into thin, long strands. These are pliable and resemble organic fiber. Uses of inorganic fibers normally do not include apparel. But since there are numerous industrial uses for them. Expect natural mineral fibers and man-made inorganic fibers such as glass and metals, all textile fiber polymers are organic compounds. In other words they are predominantly compose of carbon and hydrogen atoms some oxygen , nitrogen , chlorine and fluorine atoms.
Classification of Textile Fibers
a) Animal/ Protein
- Extruded – silk (silk moth – domesticated and wild)
- Hair – wool (sheep) , speciality ( Alpaca , Cashmere, Llama, Mohair Vicuna) , fur (animal pelt)
- Seed hair (cotton, kapok, coir)
- Stem or bast (flax, jute)
- Leaf (pina from pineapple leaves, sisal from agave leaves)
- Miscellaneous (from parts other than above three)
manufactured or man-made fibers
a) Regenerated Fibers
- Cellulosic – rayon (viscose, cuprammonium, HWM), acetate, triacetate, lyocell
- Protein – azlon ( from soybean and corn)
- Olefins ( polyethylene, polypropylene)
- Aramid (nomex, kevlar)
- textbook of fabric science.
- textiles fibers to fabrics.