Colors is the visual feeling which is corresponding in humans to the categories called red, yellow, blue and other properties of color are.

  • The physical specification of color are associate with objects, materials and light sources based on their physical properties like light absorption and reflection are the properties of colors.
  • There are 3 dimensions of colour hue, value and intensity or chroma.
  • It is a major concern in all aspects.
  • It is calmingly an increasingly important part of modern living.
  • There are two things an external occurrence and an internal sensation.

Dimensions of Colors

 Hue –  Hue refers to the name of the colors. By using the term hue we distinguish one color from the other. It is the quality which separates colors from each other. It is the contrast between redness, blueness and greenness. For eg. red, blue, green, yellow, these are the name of colors which separates them from the rest. 

Value –Value refers to the lightness or darkness of the colors. When color is mixed with white forms tints or light shades. When mixed with black it form dark shades of that particular hue. The hues are located somewhere in between the extremes of the white and black in value scale. Every hue or a color wheel has its own vale level known as normal or home value. For example when white is added in blue (hue) it will form the tint of blue or sky blue shade. When black is added to the same hue it will form dark blue or navy blue.

 Intensity / chroma –intensity refers to the purity and impurity of a hue. It is the difference between a strong colour and weak colour. The more pure a hue will be the more intensity it may contain. It is sometimes known as chroma. It is the brightness or dullness of a hue. Bright colours have high and dull colours have low intensity.

Properties of colors and theory

  1.  Prang Colour Theory

       In prang color theory there are 12 colours in the colour wheel.

Color wheel – Color wheel are logical combination of colors on it. The purpose of the it is to create an aesthetic feeling of style and appeal.

 Primary colours –Primary colours are equal distance apart on the color wheel. They are “primary” as no color combination can create such colors.

 Secondary colours – Colors halfway between the primary colors. Created by mixing two primary colors together. Orange, green, violet or purple.

Tertiary colours – These are hues intermediary between primary and secondary hues. Created by mixing one primary with one secondary colors. Red – orange, yellow – orange, blue – green, yellow – green, blue – violet and red – violet.

  1. Mansell Colours Theory –

             It was created by Albert H. Munsell. According to Mansell colour theory there are total 10 fundamental colors which are divided into 2 parts.5 colour principles and 5 intermediate colours.

     5 colour  principle or the main colours are –1. Red          2. Yellow        3.    Blue     4. Green     5. Violet.

    5 intermediate colours are –  1. Red – yellow     2. Blue – green   3. Violet – red    4. Blue – violet    5. Yellow – green.

      This theory is based on the dimensions of colours i.e; hue, value and chroma or intensity.

 Color Scheme –

Monochromatic color scheme –

                    Mono means one and one pure must be the key tone of the harmonious color scheme. Monochromatic scheme is the easiest to design as well as most comfortable because it compose of like colors. The key success to this scheme is to use enough contrast through hue and intensity to make it attractive. This scheme is restful to the eye.

 Analogous color scheme –

                   Colors that are next to each other on the wheel frequently provide the basis of very pleasing combinations. Blue, blue-violet and violet has enjoyed tremendous scheme. Analogous colour schemes are often found in nature and are harmonious and pleasing to the eye. Yellow, yellow-green and green with different values and intensities of adjacent colours will make analogous colour scheme.

Complementary colour scheme –

                                   Colours that are opposite to each other on the colour wheel are considered to be complementary colours. For e.g, red and green. High contrast of complementary colour scheme creates a vibrant look particularly when used at full saturation. Therefore, scheme must be managed so it not jarring.

  • Split complementary colour scheme –

              The split complementary colour scheme is the variation of complementary colour scheme. In this addition to the base colour, it uses the two analogous colours adjacent to its complement. This colour scheme has the same strong visual contrast as the complementary colour scheme but has less tension. It makes an arrow “Y”on the colour wheel. For example – orange, green and blue-violet. It is also known as compound harmony.

Double complementary colour scheme –

                                             Superimposing a narrow ‘X’ on the colour wheel we get the two sets of complementary colours to work with. Four colours might be confusing in a small area, but they promote variety in colours. It is therefore known as tetrad colour scheme.

 Triad colour scheme

 A triangle is placed on the colour wheel will give three colours that form the triad. The primary colours like red, yellow and blue.

Psychological effects of color –

                 Colors profoundly affect our mood and temperament. A fact that a sensitive designer use to impair the mood of the garment and the wearer. A considerable literature has evolved on the psychology and symbolism of color. Some work claim to assess personality traits according to color preference, other analyse color symbolism in terms of behaviour. For example, in many western cultures white is the bridal color symbolising purity and innocence. While in India the proper bridal color is red. Likewise in Western use black for mourning ,whereas, some cultures use white. Colors convey strong emotional meaning to an audience . These are the extra Properties of colors.

 Color Psychology: White

  • purity
  • innocence
  • cleanliness
  • sense of space
  • neutrality
  • mourning (in some cultures/societies)

Color Psychology: The Color Black

  • authority
  • power
  • strength
  • evil
  • intelligence
  • thinning / slimming
  • death or mourning

Color Psychology: The Color Gray

  • neutral
  • timeless
  • practical

Color Psychology: The Color Red

  • love
  • romance
  • gentle
  • warmth
  • comfort
  • energy
  • excitement
  • intensity
  • life
  • blood

Color Psychology: Orange

  • happy
  • energetic
  • excitement
  • enthusiasm
  • warmth
  • wealth prosperity
  • sophistication
  • change
  • stimulation

Color Psychology: Yellow

  • happiness
  • laughter
  • cheery
  • warmth
  • optimism
  • hunger
  • intensity
  • frustration
  • anger
  • attention-getting

Color Psychology: Green

  • natural
  • cool
  • growth
  • money
  • health
  • envy
  • tranquility
  • harmony
  • calmness
  • fertility

Psychology of Blue

  • calmness
  • serenity
  • cold
  • uncaring
  • wisdom
  • loyalty
  • truth
  • focused
  • unappetizing

Psychology of Purple

  • royalty
  • wealth
  • sophistication
  • wisdom
  • exotic
  • spiritual
  • prosperity
  • respect
  • mystery

Psychology of Brown

  • reliability
  • stability
  • friendship
  • sadness
  • warmth
  • comfort
  • security
  • natural
  • organic
  • mourning (in some cultures/societies)

Psychology of Pink

  • romance
  • love
  • gentle
  • calming
  • Agitation

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