Principles Of Design

The principles of design serve as guidelines for the purpose of combining elements of design in garment. These principles are important because they create a harmonious design. They are flexible in terms of current fashion trends.

The Principles of design are :

  1. Proportion
  2. Balance
  3. Rhythm
  4. Emphasis
  5. Harmony

Proportion –

Proportion means as the pleasing relationship of the parts of a whole to the whole, and to each other. It is comparative relationship of distance, size, amount, degrees or parts. It can apply on one-dimensional line, two-dimensional shapes or three-dimensional forms. In a garment, silhouette is divided into construction lines, thereby creating spaces, which must relate to one another and to the whole garment in a pleasing way. Proportion is a synthesizing principle. Traditionally it deals mainly with lines, shapes and areas. Proportion is the size relationship of the areas of the body. The relationship between the areas can be explain in terms of numeric ratios. Generally, uneven ratios 1:3, 2:3 and 3:5 are the most interesting in designing. They nearly repeat the body proportions and divisions are interesting because they are not equal. Not all fashion trends are pleasingly proportional for all figures. 

Proportion establishes not only in parts of a garment but also in terms of the relationship between one garment and the other, such as tops and skirts, jackets and trousers and the rest. 

Basic Law of Proportion or The Golden Mean Law – 

  The mathematical formula for proportion establish by early Egyptians were 3:5:8, visible in a knee length skirt and top. 5:8:13, which can be seen in a long top which is enough to cover the hips with trousers.

 The golden mean ratio has been a subject of fascination for artists and mathematicians. The golden mean ratio occurs in nature and also a mathematical formula used by artists, designers, architects and even musicians in creating beauty. The magic ratio is technically 1.1688. But for artistic uses it’s often simplified to 1:1.5 or 2:3. The Swiss architect Le Corbusier believe that the golden mean ratio naturally appeal to the human eye. And people through time and space are drew to it whether they know it as mathematical formula or not. In addition, well proportion clothing has historically been based on the golden mean ratio. It is in both nature and man made structures.

 There are times during fashion cycles when proportions invert like when the hemline of tops and jackets are low, and less of lower garments, like skirts and trousers are visible. A proportionate garment design need to be complement with proportionate motifs, their positioning on the fabric and the background spaces, and its suitability to the wearer. 

   For instance-

  Indian ladies suits follow an inverse proportion system, which is visually pleasing; because the space divisions are those specific by the golden mean. Although mini skirts are design in poor proportion, they have a visual appeal as the length of long expose the legs or legs cover with stockings and flat shoes or medium heel is proportionately balance by the short garment. 

 Proportion and Body Size – 

In general, body size is divide into three categories – small, medium, and large and these categories are the guideline in selecting garments. It is important to follow the principle of proportion, according to which fabric designs, textures, and accessories should be in proportion with the body size. 

  • small-  statured people should not select large patterned fabrics and big accessories, as they overpower the personality of the wearer, due to inappropriate proportions. 
  • The medium-sized person has a much wider range of fabrics and accessories to choose from but should evaluate each item in terms of the body size.
  • In the same way, small-patterned fabrics and small accessories are in complete contrast with a large figure type, and emphasize the body size. 

       Balance 

               In Principles of design Balance is a state of equilibrium of the design part or balance is the concept of visual equilibrium and relates to our physical sense of balance. It is the equal distribution of weight- actual or visual. It is a reconciliation of opposing forces in a composition that results in visual stability. Balance refers to equal distribution of actual and visual weight about a central point. Where there is balance there is a pleasing relationship of all the parts from side to side and top to bottom. A sense of stability results. A garment must be balance to be visually pleasing. 

There are two basic types of balance – Symmetrical balance and Asymmetrical balance

  1. Symmetrical balance –  It means equal “weight” on equal side of centrally placed fulcrum. It also known as formal balance. When the elements are arrange equally on either side of a central axis, the result is bilateral symmetry. In case of symmetrical or formal balance, identical objects are place on either side of a real or imaginary central line. Therefore, one side is the exact mirror image of the other, such as the left and right side of the human body. The line can be horizontal or vertical. It is also possible to build formal balance by arranging elements equally around a central point, resulting in radial symmetry. 

                This is the most common feature in garments, as it is the easy to achieve and provides stability along with a pleasing , sober, and sophisticated look. A garment designed keeping formal balance in mind lacks creativity and tends to emphasize any body irregularity, if present; therefore, the designer needs to lay more emphasis on color, texture, and accessories.

Examples of symmetrical balance include all garments that have identical left and right-sides, such as trousers , cardigans, straight, skirt, princess line dress.

2. Asymmetrical balance – When the structure decoration and accessories are different both the sides from the center of the dress, it is called asymmetrical balance. It may also be called informal balance. It is more complex and difficult to visualize. In this, attraction is created on both sides by using different accessories. Asymmetrical or informal balance provides more excitement. In this case,the design composition is visually different on either side of the real or imaginary line but one part equalizes the other in weight, such as the front and backside of the human body while looking at the body from the side view.

    A designer is free to express his creativity while creating outfits with informal balance. A small interesting detail on one side can balance a larger uninteresting area on the other side. This balance helps in leading the eye away from the body irregularities and enhancing the beautiful parts of the body. Formal wears are mostly asymmetrical in design therefore, consumes more time and money for construction. 

Rhythm 

   Rhythm is a sense of orderly movement. Rhythmic movement serves to unify the design provide a transition between areas of the garment, avoid conflicting areas of interest, and identify the centre of emphasis in a design. Rhythm is the most important principle of art. It is created by repeat use of design, the eye will move easily from one part to another. Rhythm can either be obvious or subtle. Rhythm establishes through repetition of lines or shapes or colors to give direction which the eye follows. It is necessary to create interest in a design and convey the theme of the design. Rhythm is an organised movement. gathers , pleats, buttons, and other details follow a rhythmic pattern which constitutes in Principles of design.

                              When dominant color, pattern, line or detail on the garment repeats on distinct locations with or without variations, then rhythm is maintain. Arrangement of the elements of design to produce rhythm can include repetition of lines, shapes, colors or textures; alteration of lines, shapes, colors, or textures; radiation of lines, shapes, colors or textural folds. Rhythm makes eye movement smooth. The principle of design that refers to a regular repetition of elements of art to produce the look and feel of movement. 

 Methods of Creating Rhythm – 

             There are 3 ways to create rhythm. They are –  

  1. Repetition – By repetition of lines, shapes colors or accessories rhythm can be made. Parallel lines are form by the use of seams, buttons, embroidery, lace etc. which helps uninterrupted eye movement. 
  1. Radiations – Radiant lines is use to produce rhythm. Gathers are use to create such lines. Eye moves easily from one part to the other on the small lines created by gathers. We can see such lines in gathers on necklines, arms and skirts.
  1. Gradation – Rhythm can be created by gradual change in lines, shapes, shades of the color. Gradation in light carpet on the floor changes gradually in value. 

       Emphasis

      For Principles of design there is some portion in every dress which is the center of attraction. This portion is point of emphasis. Emphasis is the center of interest, which draw attention more than any other part. This center of interest should be one and should relate to the total garment design. Point of emphasis is related to body structure. Emphasis should be laid only on that body part which is most attractive. Every beautiful garment possesses an emphasis area which is dominant as compared to the other areas in the garment. It is placed on an area that needs to be highlighted. To lay emphasis, buttons, belts, laces etc of contrasting and dark colors may be used. Emphasis can lie on the portion repeat use of certain elements.

For example emphasis should be around the neck of a person with a beautiful face and on waistline for a person with slim waist. It should enhance the grace of the wearer and not the other way around. Emphasis occurs at the point of visual interest or contrast.

Emphasis is achieve by – 

  • Contrasting colors.
  • Bold and unusual shapes.
  • Eye catching patterns.
  • Complex textures.
  • Attractive design details.
  • Interesting trims.
  • And many other features.

The details emphasizing the face are very popular, such as the use of a bright colored scarf or necktie, collar in contrasting color, jewelry, and hats.

Harmony 

 In Principles of design Harmony is a relationship of different portions in a dress. Harmony is achieve through judicious use of colours, shapes and textures to give a feeling of oneness. Harmony in dressing relates to the total look where all elements of designing work together in garments, accessories, jewelry, and hairstyles to produce a visual effect that attracts and holds the attention of the observer. To achieve harmony, all design elements must be select and arrange to create a unified idea, concept or theme. This is the ultimate goal in any creative effort. It requires combining lines, shapes, colors and texture in a way that’s appropriate to the purpose. 

Principles of Harmony – 

A harmonious garment has consistency in terms of design elements such as silhouette, lines, color and texture. The following are the principle of harmony – 

  1. Silhouette of the garment should be in pleasing relationship with the wearer’s figure or body type.
  2. Style lines should be consistent on every area of the garment and on separate garments that are sold as coordinates. They should have compatible angles and compliment each other when present on different areas of a garment.
  3. All areas of the garment should reflect the same shape so that the continuity of the design does no break.
  4. Patterns on the fabric should be use skillfully to make an attractive garment. Stripes and plaids should always match the garment parts unless used as a design feature. 
  5. Similar or contrasting textures should be use in a pleasing combination to add variety in a garment.
  6. Unity in color combination should be there and the color should be perfect for the person, season and occasion. 
  7. Avoid small difference in the hem length of sleeves and garment ends. As they interfere with the horizontal movement of the eye.

That’s all for the Principles of design. If you have any query you can comment below.

Refrence

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Silhouette

 Silhouette is a form which projects one solid color against the background of another colour, therefore the shape is visible. It is the outline of the whole garment. It is the most dominant visual element of a garment and the first thing visible from a distance. Silhouette also helps in forming first impressions of the garment, which may or may not be appealing to the eye. Silhouette in garment is dependent on the position and direction of horizontal and vertical lines in a garment, which decides its length width proportions. Moreover, design detail like collars and sleeves add on to the look.

 A silhouette worn must complement the body type. Each has its highlighted features in terms of specific part of the garment that is sleeves, waistline and shoulders.

  Definition –

   According to the Debester Dictionary, it is a two-dimensional representation of the  outline of an object.

 Types of Silhouette –

  1. Sheath –

It is the form of the silhouette which is fits from top to the bottom of the garment. The way it hug the body make it an unforgiving style to those without perfect figure as it emphasise waist. A defined waist is prerequisite to look good. This style is usually fitting. Slits are introduce. Example pencil skirts.                          

2. A-line – 

                      Fitted in the bodice and flared slightly in the skirt, making it look like a ‘A’. A garment in this silhouette widens towards ‘hems’ in gradual manner, smoothes out awkward lines and curves of the body.

3. Hourglass –

                  This silhouette is characterise by a fitted waistline. This is a very popular silhouette which emphasises the curves of feminine figure. This can be design with the help of belts, darts, waist bands. The highlight of this silhouette is the waistline. Wedding gowns are construct based on this silhouette with a fitted waist.

4. Bell –

    Also known as ball-gown. It is fits till the waist further flares generally at hem to make a bell-shaped skirt. Typically found in traditional wedding dresses. It is a choice of young women for wedding dress.

5. Mermaid –

        Also known as trumpet. It is similar to sheath type but flares like a ball gown from the knees. However it is undoubtedly a very beautiful silhouette and hem worth the sacrifice but uncomfortable for movement .

6. Shoulder-Wedge –

                                                 This type emphasizes the shoulder. To make this silhouette emphasise the shoulder using additional designs. For instance shoulder pads, puff sleeves or butterfly style etc.

  1. Trapeze or Tent –

                                             It looks A-lined but with pronounced flare towards hem. It has shaped like a trapezoid or tent. Therefore, this type is good for short dresses however difficult in long dresses.

8. Asymmetrical –

                                          This has a diagonal hem line. This effect is achieve by varying the colors, fabrics etc.

Importance –

  1. It emphasize as well alter woman’s shape.
  2. They can create flattering illusion.
  3. It can meet the dress code for different occasions.

Color

Colors is the visual feeling which is corresponding in humans to the categories called red, yellow, blue and other properties of color are.

  • The physical specification of color are associate with objects, materials and light sources based on their physical properties like light absorption and reflection are the properties of colors.
  • There are 3 dimensions of colour hue, value and intensity or chroma.
  • It is a major concern in all aspects.
  • It is calmingly an increasingly important part of modern living.
  • There are two things an external occurrence and an internal sensation.

Dimensions of Colors

 Hue –  Hue refers to the name of the colors. By using the term hue we distinguish one color from the other. It is the quality which separates colors from each other. It is the contrast between redness, blueness and greenness. For eg. red, blue, green, yellow, these are the name of colors which separates them from the rest. 

Value –Value refers to the lightness or darkness of the colors. When color is mixed with white forms tints or light shades. When mixed with black it form dark shades of that particular hue. The hues are located somewhere in between the extremes of the white and black in value scale. Every hue or a color wheel has its own vale level known as normal or home value. For example when white is added in blue (hue) it will form the tint of blue or sky blue shade. When black is added to the same hue it will form dark blue or navy blue.

 Intensity / chroma –intensity refers to the purity and impurity of a hue. It is the difference between a strong colour and weak colour. The more pure a hue will be the more intensity it may contain. It is sometimes known as chroma. It is the brightness or dullness of a hue. Bright colours have high and dull colours have low intensity.

Properties of colors and theory

  1.  Prang Colour Theory

       In prang color theory there are 12 colours in the colour wheel.

Color wheel – Color wheel are logical combination of colors on it. The purpose of the it is to create an aesthetic feeling of style and appeal.

 Primary colours –Primary colours are equal distance apart on the color wheel. They are “primary” as no color combination can create such colors.

 Secondary colours – Colors halfway between the primary colors. Created by mixing two primary colors together. Orange, green, violet or purple.

Tertiary colours – These are hues intermediary between primary and secondary hues. Created by mixing one primary with one secondary colors. Red – orange, yellow – orange, blue – green, yellow – green, blue – violet and red – violet.

  1. Mansell Colours Theory –

             It was created by Albert H. Munsell. According to Mansell colour theory there are total 10 fundamental colors which are divided into 2 parts.5 colour principles and 5 intermediate colours.

     5 colour  principle or the main colours are –1. Red          2. Yellow        3.    Blue     4. Green     5. Violet.

    5 intermediate colours are –  1. Red – yellow     2. Blue – green   3. Violet – red    4. Blue – violet    5. Yellow – green.

      This theory is based on the dimensions of colours i.e; hue, value and chroma or intensity.

 Color Scheme –

Monochromatic color scheme –

                    Mono means one and one pure must be the key tone of the harmonious color scheme. Monochromatic scheme is the easiest to design as well as most comfortable because it compose of like colors. The key success to this scheme is to use enough contrast through hue and intensity to make it attractive. This scheme is restful to the eye.

 Analogous color scheme –

                   Colors that are next to each other on the wheel frequently provide the basis of very pleasing combinations. Blue, blue-violet and violet has enjoyed tremendous scheme. Analogous colour schemes are often found in nature and are harmonious and pleasing to the eye. Yellow, yellow-green and green with different values and intensities of adjacent colours will make analogous colour scheme.

Complementary colour scheme –

                                   Colours that are opposite to each other on the colour wheel are considered to be complementary colours. For e.g, red and green. High contrast of complementary colour scheme creates a vibrant look particularly when used at full saturation. Therefore, scheme must be managed so it not jarring.

  • Split complementary colour scheme –

              The split complementary colour scheme is the variation of complementary colour scheme. In this addition to the base colour, it uses the two analogous colours adjacent to its complement. This colour scheme has the same strong visual contrast as the complementary colour scheme but has less tension. It makes an arrow “Y”on the colour wheel. For example – orange, green and blue-violet. It is also known as compound harmony.

Double complementary colour scheme –

                                             Superimposing a narrow ‘X’ on the colour wheel we get the two sets of complementary colours to work with. Four colours might be confusing in a small area, but they promote variety in colours. It is therefore known as tetrad colour scheme.

 Triad colour scheme

 A triangle is placed on the colour wheel will give three colours that form the triad. The primary colours like red, yellow and blue.

Psychological effects of color –

                 Colors profoundly affect our mood and temperament. A fact that a sensitive designer use to impair the mood of the garment and the wearer. A considerable literature has evolved on the psychology and symbolism of color. Some work claim to assess personality traits according to color preference, other analyse color symbolism in terms of behaviour. For example, in many western cultures white is the bridal color symbolising purity and innocence. While in India the proper bridal color is red. Likewise in Western use black for mourning ,whereas, some cultures use white. Colors convey strong emotional meaning to an audience . These are the extra Properties of colors.

 Color Psychology: White

  • purity
  • innocence
  • cleanliness
  • sense of space
  • neutrality
  • mourning (in some cultures/societies)

Color Psychology: The Color Black

  • authority
  • power
  • strength
  • evil
  • intelligence
  • thinning / slimming
  • death or mourning

Color Psychology: The Color Gray

  • neutral
  • timeless
  • practical

Color Psychology: The Color Red

  • love
  • romance
  • gentle
  • warmth
  • comfort
  • energy
  • excitement
  • intensity
  • life
  • blood

Color Psychology: Orange

  • happy
  • energetic
  • excitement
  • enthusiasm
  • warmth
  • wealth prosperity
  • sophistication
  • change
  • stimulation

Color Psychology: Yellow

  • happiness
  • laughter
  • cheery
  • warmth
  • optimism
  • hunger
  • intensity
  • frustration
  • anger
  • attention-getting

Color Psychology: Green

  • natural
  • cool
  • growth
  • money
  • health
  • envy
  • tranquility
  • harmony
  • calmness
  • fertility

Psychology of Blue

  • calmness
  • serenity
  • cold
  • uncaring
  • wisdom
  • loyalty
  • truth
  • focused
  • unappetizing

Psychology of Purple

  • royalty
  • wealth
  • sophistication
  • wisdom
  • exotic
  • spiritual
  • prosperity
  • respect
  • mystery

Psychology of Brown

  • reliability
  • stability
  • friendship
  • sadness
  • warmth
  • comfort
  • security
  • natural
  • organic
  • mourning (in some cultures/societies)

Psychology of Pink

  • romance
  • love
  • gentle
  • calming
  • Agitation

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Texture

Texture means the surface quality of an object- how it looks, feels and performs. Texture describes the surface or tactile quality of a material, its degree of smoothness or roughness. The word texture describes the nature of the surface. The word ‘texture’ comes from the latin word meaning to weave. In fashion designing texture refers to the surface of fabrics or trimmings used in the garments. It is the most important element of design because people first get attract by the colour of the garment then automatically reach out to the texture whether they will feel comfortable or not. Texture is also define as a visual and tangible structure of a surface or substance. Texture appeals to not just one, but three of our senses ; touch, sight and hearing. Texture affects the look of a garment, the feel, influence the appearance of the person wearing the garment. Texture , basically connected to the weave of the fabric.

Factors affecting texture in textile

All the fabric textures, from the purest chiffon to the bulkiest fleece to the solid canvas, depend on variations of only four factors :-

Fibre content –

Fibre content is the generic or family name like, wool, nylon, rayon, polyester etc.. They are the substance from which the yarn and fabrics are made. The length, chemical composition, shape and performance are characteristics of a fibre which greatly influence the final texture. Natural fibres such as – cotton, wool, silk etc; man-made fibres and synthetic fibres such as rayon, nylon, polyester, acetate, olefin etc. Long filament fibres such as silk and synthetics give shinier, smoother and cooler touch and sometimes stronger fabrics. Short staple fibres such as cotton, wool etc, give relatively duller, rougher, fuzzier and warmer touch and sometimes weaker fabrics. Some fibres or combination of fibres contributes to static electricity which results in clinging garments. Functional qualities such as- resiliency or elasticity, absorbency, heat conductivity, shrinkage control, resistance to fire, insects acids, alkalies etc all depends upon the fibre.

Yarn structure –

Yarn is the intermediary state between fibres and fabrics. Fibres have spun into yarn in the next step of making fabrics. The fibres have spun and twisted in either ‘S’ or ‘Z’ direction to form a yarn. The amount of yarn twisted influence the surface and hand. High twisted yarns contribute to hard-surface, smooth, strong and somewhat elastic fabrics. The soft-surfaced yarns results from the low-twisted yarns. The direction of the twist is also important ‘S’ or ‘Z’ twist. The number of strand a yarn has twisted together influences the textural thickness and strength. Generally, the higher the strands, the stronger the yarn is. The thickness of the yarn influences how many strands can be used and consequently the fineness or coarseness of a texture. Novelty yarns create interesting surface. Elastic and high bulky yarns introduce other tactile effects and performance.

Fabric structure –

Fabric structure is the way fibrous yarns are interlock into a flat fabric. Varieties in fabric structure provide the most dramatic most easily seen difference in the texture. The structure cause by film, felt, or made of various fibres bond directly to each other without first being spun, it could be net, lace, braid, knit or woven. Weaving generally gives the strongest and most stable fabric structure.

Grains –

The direction of the yarn, also called grain, both woven and non-woven fabrics have grain. Woven fabrics or grain,with lengthwise and crosswise yarns straight, and interwoven at right angles, lace,net and felt lack this flexibility of grain, but hold crisps shapes better. Grain is critical to shaping and draping effects.

Combination of fabric structure –

          These create new textural potential but need caution. If two fibres are bonded or laminated together, they produce a thicker, stronger texture but their joining must be permanent on grain and their care and performance quality is compatible. They rarely serve well in garments destined for stress and strain.

Finishes –

          Chemical or mechanical finishes which use heat, pressure and/or chemicals may either affect the fabric surface or penetrate the fibre. Some finishes are primary for appearance, such as bleaching, embossing, flocking, glazing etc. Some finishes affect both visual and tactile qualities  such as singering, napping, shearing, puckering and seizing. With their advantages, finishes may also create undesired side effects which the industry constantly strives to reduce.

What words describe texture ?

 Loopy, fuzzy, furry, soft, shiny, dull, bulky, rough, crip,smooth and sheer.

Why texture is important in fashion ?

 It can increase or decrease the body size, it can draw added attention to a design.

Sometimes we can add texture to the fabric by adding stitched details, pin tucks and embellishments as well. While choosing texture do give in the tests – tactile and visual, some texture can only be felt, but commonly textures can be distinguish visually. Not all textures that are visually appealing can be worn. To wear or drape attires you have to be alert about the feel of the texture – if you are not comfortable wearing a certain texture.

Forms

Forms is defined as a 3- dimensional area enclosed by a surface. If the form is hollow we often perceive the interior as volume, if it is solid, the interior is described as mass. Forms may be created using a combination of two or more shapes. Shapes and forms as visual design elements are fascinating and challenging because they are so malleable. It is a 3-D element of design and has length, width and height. Form is volume and enclosed by a surface, we are remained. They have power to evoke feelings similar to those of line

 It adds another dimension to shape. A circle is a flat two-dimensional shape. When you add the shading that transforms the circle into a sphere it takes on three-dimensional form like a ball you could throw or bounce.Basic forms are three-dimensional figures including spheres, cubes, cylinders, pyramids and cones. If an object has height, width and depth it is a form.

 A form is negative or positive. A brick-shaped indentation in a wall is a negative form while an exposed brick is a positive form. Form can also be static or dynamic. Static means still, so a ball resting on the table is static. A dynamic form suggests motion such as a ball flying across the room.

 

 Equal forms

  • It include sphere and cube.

Unequal forms

  •  It include cone, cylinder, bell, pyramid, cuboid, dome, barrel, hour glass etc.

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Space

Space is an area or extend and as such is a critical element of visual design. It may be either two dimensional (flat) or three dimensional (hollow or volume). The basic raw material of design , space is the empty area into which the other elements of designs – line, shape, form, colour, texture and pattern are place. Space gives of itself to become shape form and pattern and determines how all elements relate. It is organise to introduce lines that subdivides, rearrange, push, pull and otherwise manipulate it. As a result Without spaces none of the elements of design could be seen.

   In design, space is concerned with the area deep within the moment of designated design, the design will take place. For a two dimensional design, space concerns creating the illusion of a third dimensional of a flat surface.

  •  Space can be used to separate and connect the element used in the design.
  • Wider spaces separate elements from each other and narrow space connects elements with each other to reveal the relationship between them. Overlapping elements maximizes their relationship.
  •  White space does main things in the design. It creates grouping of elements , emphasis and hierarchy. Also improves legibility.

Effects use in clothing

Illusion in dress– It is basic to the geometric illusion.

Figure demonstrates the power of spacing between lines to influence total apparent size. In (a) the wider center panel spacing makes the entire bodice appear wider than in (b) where the narrow center spacing makes the whole bodice seem slimmer. These geometric illusion when deftly used in dress , can be a potent tool. However , most depth and distance spatial illusions can become confusing and distracting in dress

  • Physical Effect –

                 Geometric spaces illusions mentioned above influence apparent figure height , weight, size and proportions subtly but powerfully.

Three identical silhouette, but the size and shape of each seem different because of they different ways the interior space is subdivided into smallest area of varying proportion fig.(a) shows the empty silhouette as a basis for comparison. fig.(b) is subdivided into two long , narrow “empty” structure shapes which allow vertically broken view from shoulder to hem. fig.(c)with the same silhouette breaks the vertical space with a horizontal waistline , shoulder yoke and skirt piece. Creating wide horizontal shapes which shorten and widen the figure.

  • Psychological effects –

Various uses of spaces in clothing can powerfully manipulate feelings. Unbroken space suggests drama and sophistication and has an uninterrupted loveliness of its own. It may seem strange but large areas are at the same time bold and serene because they convey a calmness of confidence the quietness of certainty.

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Shapes

Meaning

Shape is simply a flat area enclose by a line. It refers to the outside dimension of contour of an object. When the silhouette of the body is observed , the shape of the body is visible. It encloses space. In art and design, shape is usually define as a flat, 2D area enclose by a line. The line creates a silhouette, outline edge of an interior area seen as flat. The word shape usually bring images of geometric shape and indeed it is these and their variations which comprises both the human figure and clothing. They are use to convey meaning and organize information. All shapes may vary in size or in the area they occupy

Definition of shapes

Shape is defined as the flat area enclosed by a line .

Types

  • Equal shape – The word equal itself defines it. Equal shape are those whose sides are equal like ; square, circle, pentagon, hexagon, octagon, equilateral triangle.

Unequal shapes

Unequal shapes are those whose sides or dimensions are unequal. These includes- oval, rectangle, spade, club, diamond, star, isosceles triangle and parallelogram.

  • They can be border by a line.
  • It can be define by colour, texture or tone
  • They can suggest movement or emotions.
  • Shape in 3D is form.
  • They can be sharp and clean or hazy and suggesting something.
  • Shape can be negative or positive.

The way the shapes fit together influences their effects. Some shapes like squares, hexagons, ogive, diamonds, triangles and rectangles fit tightly and completely together without leaving any spaces between them, which gives a sense of security and stability (Fig.3.21). Some shapes other than the above mentioned, leave spaces between them at some points, when they fit together; but these spaces create new interesting shapes (Fig.3.22). These combinations can be used for creating appealing fabric designs.

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Lines

Lines is the most important element of art although forms the basis of any design. Line is the lifeline of any design.

Meaning

Line is an elongated mark, the connection between two points, or the effects made by the edge of an object where there is no actual line on the object itself.

Definition –

  1. A line is a mark made by a moving point which can show direction, lead the eye, draw the attention, outline an object, design a space or communicate a feeling through its character and direction. 
  2. A long thin mark on the surface of something or on the ground.

Characteristics –

  • Line leads the eye in the direction. The line is going and divides the area through which it passes. That providing a breaking point in space.
  • Line may connect two or more points along a continuous path or defines a shape or silhouette or convey a mood or character.
  • As Anderson notes, line may communicate clarify, symbolize, represent or interpret.
Aspects – Every line can be analyse according to nine aspects and every line has all nine aspects.

   Effects of lines on different types of figures

AspectsVariationAppearance  Physical effectsPsychological effectsWays of introducing
PathStraight Emphasis body angularity, counter roundity.  Stiff, direct, rigid, precise, tense, sure and masculine.Seams, dart, garment edges, pleats, tucks.
Restrained curveStraight line counter body curve and therefore tend to be figure concealing, slight emphasis body curve.Soft gentle, flexible, but controlled graceful if slightly irregular.Seams, garment edges and hems, fabric pattern, gathers, draping.
Full curve lines Emphasis body curves, counters thinness and angularity.Dynamic, feminine, active, forceful and unstable.Pattern, seams, garment edges, scalloped edges.
Bent  Combines straight and curved effects.This and the restrained curve are the lines most often found in nature; rivers, trees, hills, can be both forceful and gentle, depending on use.
Jagged lines Emphasis angularity.Abrupt, nervous, jerky, busy, unstable, excited.Decorative fabric pattern, linear trims.
Looped lines Emphasis roundness.Swirling, active, soft, feminine, busy, unsure.  Decorative fabric pattern, trims.
Wavy Emphasis roundness, counters angularity.Feminine, soft, flowing, graceful, uncertain, flexible.Seams, garment edges, fabric pattern, trims.
Scalloped  Repeats, roundness, counter angularity.Curves provides softness and femininity, sharp points provide crispness and liveliness, youth.Garment edges, pattern trims.
Zig zag Emphasis angularity, counters roundness.Sharp, busy, regular, jerky, stiff, intense, masculine.Garment edges, fabric pattern trims.
Crimped Rough contour.Involved, complex, rough.Fabric pattern trims.
ThicknessThick lines Adds weight.Forceful, aggressive, sure, masculine.Borders, trims, fabric pattern, cuffs, belts.  
Thin Minimizes weight.Delicate, dainty, feminine, passive, calm, gentle.Seams, edges, trims, fabric patterns, farts.
EvennessUneven Accents bulges.Unsure, unsteady, insecure, questioning.Fabric pattern trims.
Even Evenness, physical steadiness.Regular, smooth, secure, sure, firm.Seams, edges, pleats gather, draping pattern trims, stripes.
ContinuityContinuous/unbroken lines Smooth, reinforces, smooth lines, emphasises bumps and bulges.Consistent, definite, sure, flowing, firm, certain, elegant, smooth.Seams, pleats, gathers, draping, pattern trims, stripes.
Broken May emphasis irregularities.Less certain, casual, sporty, playful. Any broken line only suggests its path.Insertion, trims, belts, rows of buttons.
Dotted May be spotty varied.Casual, playful, less certain, suggestive.Pearls, beads, trims, fabric pattern
Combinations Varied.Innumerable combinations of solid and broken lines and dots are possible, and they will tend to convey a busy, “broken” effect. Many combinations can provide a casual crispness.Lace, edgings, fabric pattern, trims, belts, smocking, quilting, hemstitching.
Edge/ sharpnessSharp Emphasis area as smooth or bumpy.Definite, precise, certain assertive, sure, hard.Seams, darts, edges, fabric pattern, ribbon and other trims, stripes.
Fuzzy Gently increases area size, softness.Soft, uncertain, indefinite, suggestive.Fringes, fur, braids and trims, fabric pattern, feathers.
Edge/contourSmooth Reinforces smoothness or accents bumps.Smooth, simple, straight-forward, sure.Seams, darts, trims, fabric pattern, stripes.
Shaped Varied according to kind of shape.Complex, involved, busy, certain, informal.Lace, fringe, beading, pearl, other trims, fabric pattern.
ConsistencySolid, smooth, closed Advances boldly.Smooth, sure, strong.Stripes, binding, piping, ribbon, belt, border trims.
Porous Advances little, may recede.Open, delicate, weak, less certain.Lace, edging, and insertion, lace borders, fabric pattern.
LengthLong Emphasis its direction, elongates, smoothness.Length of the line is usually perceived in relation to other lines or an area.  Any
Short Breaks up spaces, increases busyness.A line perceived as short in relation to others tends to give a more abrupt effect.Any
DirectionVertical Lengthiness, narrow.Dignity, strength, poise, alertness, rigidity.Any.
Horizontal Shortness, wideness.Repose, rest, calmness, passivity.Any.
Diagonal Closer to vertical line gives lengthiness, closer to horizontal gives wideness 45-degree effects more dependence on influence of surrounding lines.  Drama, activity, instability, restlessness.Any.

Psychological Effects of Lines on Different Figures –

For a slim woman

A slim woman should not wear straight panels and severely slender one-piece dresses. She must eliminate vertical strip materials. Greater length of dresses sowing long silhouette lines with low cut and deep “V” neckline will not suit her. Low cut should be avoided if the bones of the neck are prominent. Tight fit dress across the front would make the figure look slenderer, that must be avoid. She should wear checks or floral designs and broader neck line. The lines in the dress should create effect of horizontal movement. Long sleeves will look better as they increase the horizontal movement.

For a stout figure

Styles with long lines add to the height and suit a stout person. One-piece dress makes a stout person look less stout. The dresses should be simple style, without elaborate trimmings of any kind.A stout woman must prefer plain material. She must avoid wearing tight fit dresses and extremes in dresses like very short or very long skirts. She should wear a vertical movement in the dress however eye moves up and down across the dress. A long ‘V’ neckline is always desirable for her. She should prefer short sleeves, avoid sleeveless dress show stoutness and long sleeves increase the horizontal movement of the eye. A stout woman will find the dresses with long waistlines or without waistlines as most appropriate.

For a tall woman

The tall woman must be careful that the clothes she wears, do not make her appear angular and awkward. She should avoid vertical stripes as they add to the height. One must avoid dresses with low cut and deep V-necklines. She should select garments with broken lines and coat effects rather than straight panels. Ruffles and frills can be used, if she is not too tall.

For a short woman

The short woman should choose lines which make her appear taller, horizontal lines should be avoided. Unbroken perpendicular lines are the best. A short and thin person can wear any style in fashion but must avoid choosing extremely bold design. Short and stout person has to be very selective. Styles with short waist will give bulky and ungraceful appearance and large figure materials will make her appearance stouter than she really is. Dress should be such which shows her waistline as low as possible. Although , garments which are slightly longer than prevailing fashion would greatly improve her appearance.

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Elements of Design

 Elements of design are the fundamental parts or aspects use to compose any work of design. This include –

characteristics –

Design is incomplete without using them. Human body needs vital organs to function. The foundation of designing is based on these elements.

Art elements are the basic concepts that constitute the language of design. Knowledge of these helps us in communicating with others about the design. Most importantly the elements are the visual components in creating an object or composition. To create a design, the designer uses some or all of these devices: line, form, spacecolour and texture. These elements further manipulate and modifies as they can produce unlimited visual effects therefore refer as plastic.

Above all the art elements are consider individually, they all are interdependent. Forms exist in spaceColour and visual textures are qualities visible through light. Line is a graphic shorthand device for symbolising forms by drawing boundaries of objects.

One person may use certain materials and tools and processes to construct a design. While another person viewing the design seeks to find a way of interpreting expresses in it by using these elements. But without the use of each of these one will find it difficult to express one’s ideas adequately.

In other words the elements of design are the basic components use as part of any composition. Moreover each of the art elements has psychophysical powers of communication and provides man with symbolic languages. The designer selects certain of these devices for their ability to project the desired image to create illusions.

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Design

    When someone designs a garment, building, machine or anything, they firstly, plan it and make a detail sketch which help them during making it. It is the backbone of graphic art. Design is the part of art, actually a part of our life and personality. It is everywhere. What we create is design. Therefore in fashion industry design plays the vital role in creating something new and unique.

It is everywhere; for instance of design can be seen in nature such as leopard’s spotted pelt, the hexagonal pattern of a beehive, beautiful shapes of flowers and leaves etc. Selecting and organizing of materials to achieve desired effects is designing. It is the process of structuring by using the basic elements of the visual arts – line, form, space, light, colour, transparency, motion and texture. As such design is part of every person’s daily activity. Everyone is a designer whether he consciously wants to be one or not. On the highest level, designing is a continuous and knowledgeable manipulation of the art elements to produce an expressive statement. It is a purposeful creation in which emotion, knowledge, imagination and intellect are all operative.

According to Goldstein –

 Design is any arrangements of lines, shapes, forms, color, and texture.

They are of two types

  1. Structural
  2. Decorative

Structural design is a form of construction that is build into the cloth during the process of its manufacturing. Simplicity is a feature of structural designs. As they are an integral part of its form rather than an embellishment.

Decorative design it is apply to the surface of the cloth to ornament it.

In textile designing weaving is the most common method of producing structural designs. Non-woven methods for instance knitting, lace making can also be included in this category.

Dyeing, printing, painting, embroidery and certain finishing processes are some of the common methods of producing decorative designs.

Size form color and texture of an object are use to create structural designs. Decorative designs are the surface enrichment of a structural designs. Any element of designing that have been use to a structure , giving it a richer quality to constitute decorative designs.

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