5.CORONAVIRUS EXPLAINED-impacts

What are the impacts?

The impacts of 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic is visible in the political systems of multiple countries. It has causing suspensions of legislative activities, isolation or deaths of multiple politicians. Also elections were rescheduled due to fears of spread of the virus.

China –

The US government is criticizing the Chinese government. UK Minister for the Cabinet Office Michael Gove, and others are also criticizing the Chinese governmentfor its handling of the pandemic. While a number of provincial-level administrators of the CCP were dismissed over their handling of the quarantine efforts in central China.

Italy

In early March, the Italian government criticised the European Union’s lack of solidarity with coronavirus-affected Italy. But on 22 March, Russian president Vladimir Putin had the Russian army send military medics and other medical equipment to Italy.

Education –

The pandemic has affected educational systems worldwide, leading to the near-total closures of schools, universities and colleges.. School closures in response to COVID-19 have shed light on various social and economic issues. Issues such as student debt, digital learning, food insecurity, and homelessness, as well as access to childcare, health care etc. The impact is more severe for disadvantaged children and their families. It is causing interrupted learning, compromised nutrition, childcare problems, and consequent economic cost to families who could not work.

Socio-Economic –

The socio-economic impacts of the 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic has had far- reaching consequences beyond the spread of the COVID-19 disease itself and efforts to quarantine it. While the SARS-CoV-2 virus has spread around the globe, concerns have shifted from supply-side manufacturing issues to decreased business in the services sector. The coronavirus pandemic is causing the largest global recession in history. With more than a third of the global population at the time being placed on lockdown.

Culture –

The pandemic is affecting performing arts and cultural heritage sectors profoundly , impacting organisations’ operations as well as individuals—both employed and independent—globally. Arts and culture sector organisations attempted to uphold their (often publicly funded) mission to provide access to cultural heritage to the community, while maintaining the safety of their employees and the public, and support artists where possible.

Environment and climate –

The worldwide disruption caused by the coronavirus pandemic has resulted in numerous impacts on the environment and the climate. The severe decline in planned travel[923] has caused many regions to experience a drop in air pollution. In China, lockdowns and other measures resulted in a 25 percent reduction in carbon emissions, which one Earth systems scientist estimated may have saved at least 77,000 lives over two months. However, the outbreak has also disrupted environmental diplomacy efforts, including causing the postponement of the 2020 United Nations Climate Change Conference, and the economic fallout from it is predict to slow investment in green energy technologies.

Xenophobia and racism –

Since the outbreak of COVID-19, heightened prejudice and xenophobia have been noted toward people of Chinese & East Asian descent. Also xenophobia is rising against people from hotspots in Europe, the United States and other countries. People are observing incidents of fear, suspicion, and hostility in many countries.

Domestic violence –

Many countries have reported an increase in domestic violence and intimate partner violence attributed to lockdowns amid the 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic.

Misinformation –

Misinformation related to the 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic consists of conspiracy theories and disinformation that emerged regarding the origin, scale, prevention and treatment surrounding the COVID-19 disease and the ensuing pandemic related to the SARS- CoV-2 virus. Meanwhile medical misinformation about ways to prevent, treat, and self diagnose coronavirus disease has circulated on social media. Some false claims may be commercial scams offering at- home tests, suppose preventives, and “miracle” cures. The World Health Organization has declared an “epidemic” of incorrect information about the virus, which poses risks to global health.

References-

1 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2019–20_coronavirus_pandemic 2https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coronavirus_disease_2019 3https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Socio-economic_impact_of_the_2019–20_coronavirus_pandemic 4https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coronavirus_disease_2019

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4.CORONAVIRUS EXPLAINED-current situation,duration and global response.

What is the current situation?

For current situation, latest stats and figures about COVID-19 visit https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/.
Currently there are more than 2.4M cases and more than 166k deaths so far. Coronavirus pandemic has taken over 206 countries and territories with the United States being the worst hit country. It has brought the world to a standstill. Many countries are imposing strict lockdown in order to contain the spread of the disease. But the count of coronavirus patients is
continuously on the rise. This has overwhelmed the health care system of all major countries with hospital being overcrowded.

Due to the coronavirus many doctors and frontline workers have lost their life. Due to the sudden increase in number of cases , there arose shortage of masks, PPE , ventilators and other medical supplies.

What will be its duration?

The WHO asserts that the pandemic can be controlled. The peak and ultimate duration of the outbreak are uncertain and may differ by location. Maciej Boni of Penn State University stated, “If left unchecked, infectious outbreaks typically plateau and then start to decline when the disease runs out of available hosts. But it’s almost impossible to make any sensible projection right now about when that will be”. The Chinese government’s senior medical adviser Zhong Nanshan argue that “it could be over by June” if all countries can be mobilise to follow the WHO’s advice on measures to stop the spread of the virus. On 17 March, Adam Kucharski of the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine said SARS-CoV-2 “is going to be circulating, potentially for a year or two”.

According to Imperial College study by Neil Ferguson, physical distancing & other measures will be required until a vaccine becomes available. William Schaffner of Vanderbilt University states “I think it’s unlikely that this coronavirus—because it’s so readily transmissible—will disappear completely”. And it “might turn into a seasonal disease, making a comeback every year”. The virulence of the comeback would depend on herd immunity and the extent of mutation.

What is the global response?

Due to the pandemic, many countries have imposed entry bans for their citizens or recent travellers to most affected areas. Other countries and regions have imposed global restrictions that apply to all foreign countries and territories. Also restrictions are there ro prevent their own citizens from travelling overseas.

Owing to the effective quarantine of public transport in Wuhan and Hubei, several countries evacuated their citizens and diplomatic staff from the area, primarily through chartered flights of the home nation, with Chinese authorities providing clearance. Canada, the United States, Japan, India, Sri Lanka, Australia, France, Argentina, Germany, and Thailand were among the first to plan the evacuation of their citizens.

International governmental organisations are addressing the economic and social impacts of the COVID-19 crisis. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development has launched a platform to provide timely and comprehensive information on policy responses in countries around the world, as well as viewpoints and advice. From policies to strengthen health systems and the world economy to addressing the effects of lock-down and restrictions on travel, the digital hub includes a Country Policy Tracker, and aims to help countries learn from each other and to facilitate a coordinated global response to the coronavirus challenge.

References

1 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2019–20_coronavirus_pandemic 2 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coronavirus_disease_2019 3https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Socio-economic_impact_of_the_2019–20_coronavirus_pandemic 4https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coronavirus_disease_2019

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3.CORONAVIRUS EXPLAINED- diagnosis, treatment and containment .

What is the diagnosis of COVID-19 ?

Infection by the virus can be provisionally diagnosed on the basis of symptoms. Although confirmation is ultimately by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) of infected secretions or CT imaging. A study comparing PCR to CT in Wuhan suggests CT is significantly more sensitive than PCR. Though less specific, with many of its imaging features overlapping with other pneumonias and disease processes. But the American College of Radiology recommends that to screen for or as a first-line test to diagnose COVID-19 .

What is the treatment for COVID-19?

There are no specific antiviral medications for COVID-19, but development efforts are underway, including testing of existing medications. Taking over-the-counter cold medications, drinking fluids, and resting may help alleviate symptoms. Depending on the severity, oxygen therapy, intravenous fluids, and breathing support may be required. But the use of steroids may worsen outcomes. Meanwhile investigation is going on several compounds for use in treating COVID-19. These compounds are useful for treating other viral diseases.

There is no available vaccine, but various agencies are actively developing vaccine candidates.They are using previous work on SARS-CoV because SARS-CoV & SARS-CoV-2 both use ACE2 receptor to enter human cells.

Investigation is going on three vaccination strategies. First, researchers aim to build a whole virus vaccine. The use of such a virus, be it inactive or dead, aims to elicit a prompt immune response of the human body to a new infection with COVID-19. A second strategy, subunit vaccines, aims to create a vaccine that sensitises the immune system to certain subunits of the virus. In the case of SARS-CoV-2, such research focuses on the S-spike protein that helps the virus intrude the ACE2 enzyme receptor. While a third strategy is that of the nucleic acid vaccines (DNA or RNA vaccines, a novel technique for creating a vaccination). Testing these experimental vaccines for safety and efficacy is essential.

On 16 March 2020, the first clinical trial of a vaccine started with four volunteers in Seattle. The vaccine contains a harmless genetic code copied from the virus that causes the disease.Antibody dependent enhancement has been suggested as a potential challenge for vaccine development for SARS-COV-2, but this is controversial.

What are the control strategies?

Strategies in the control of an outbreak are containment or suppression, and mitigation. Containment occurs in the early stages of the outbreak and aims to trace and isolate those infected as well as introduce other measures of infection control and vaccinations to stop the disease from spreading to the rest of the population. Also contact tracing is done in order to identify possible source and potential victims.  When it is no longer possible to contain the spread of the disease, efforts then move to the mitigation stage: measures are taken to slow the spread and mitigate its effects on the healthcare system and society.

A combination of both containment and mitigation measures may be undertaken at the same time. Suppression requires more extreme measures so as to reverse the pandemic by reducing the basic reproduction number to less than 1. Part of managing an infectious disease outbreak is trying to decrease the epidemic peak, known as flattening the epidemic curve. This decreases the risk of over burdening of health services and provides more time for development of vaccines and treatments .

Refrences-

1.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2019–20_coronavirus_pandemic
2.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coronavirus_disease_2019
3.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Socio-economic_impact_of_the_2019–20_coronavirus_pandemic
4.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coronavirus_disease_2019
5.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coronavirus

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2.CORONAVIRUS EXPLAINED- symptoms, transmission & preventive measures.

What are the symptoms of COVID-19?

Those infected with the coronavirus disease may be asymptomatic or develop flu-like symptoms such as fever, cough & shortness of breath. Emergency symptoms include difficulty breathing, persistent chest pain or pressure, confusion, difficulty waking, and bluish face or lips; immediate medical attention is advisory if these symptoms are present. Less commonly, upper respiratory symptoms such as sneezing, runny nose or sore throat may be seen. Gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea have been observed in varying percentages.

How does COVID-19 get transmitted?

The WHO and the U.S.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) say it is primarily spread during close contact and by small droplets produce when people cough, sneeze or talk; with close contact being within approximately 1–3 m (3–10 ft). A study in Singapore found that an uncovered cough can lead to droplets travelling up to 4.5 meters (15 feet). Respiratory droplets may also be produce while breathing out, including when talking.

Though the virus is not generally airborne, the National Academy of Science has suggested that bioaerosol transmission may be possible and air collectors positioned in the hallway outside of people’s rooms yielded samples positive for viral RNA. The droplets can land in the mouths or noses of people who are nearby or possibly be inhale into the lungs. Initial studies suggest a doubling time of the number of infected persons of 6–7 days and a basic reproduction number (R0) of 2.2–2.7, but a study to be published on April 07, 2020 calculated a much higher median R0 value of 5.7.

It may also spread when one touches a contaminated surface, known as fomite transmission, and then touches one’s eyes, nose or mouth. While there are concerns it may spread via feces, this risk is believe to be low. The virus survives for hours to days on surfaces. Specifically, the virus was found to be detectable for one day on cardboard, for up to three days on plastic (polypropylene) and stainless steel (AISI 304), and for up to four hours on 99% copper. This, however, varies depending on the humidity and temperature.
The coronavirus is most contagious when people are symptomatic; while spread may be possible before symptoms emerge, the risk is low.

What are the preventive measures for coronavirus disease?

Preventive measures to reduce the chances of infection include staying at home, avoiding crowded places, washing hands with soap and water often and for at least 20 seconds, practising good respiratory hygiene and avoiding touching the eyes, nose or mouth with unwashed hands. The CDC recommends covering the mouth and nose with a tissue when coughing or sneezing and recommends using the inside of the elbow if no tissue is available. Proper hand hygiene after any cough or sneeze should be followed. The CDC has recommended the use of cloth face coverings in public settings, in part to limit transmission by asymptomatic individuals.

Refrences-

1.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2019–20_coronavirus_pandemic
2.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coronavirus_disease_2019
3.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Socio-economic_impact_of_the_2019–20_coronavirus_pandemic
4.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coronavirus_disease_2019
5.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coronavirus

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1.CORONAVIRUS EXPLAINED -origin

What is coronavirus ?

Coronaviruses are a group of related viruses that cause diseases in mammals and birds. In humans, coronaviruses cause respiratory tract infections that can range from mild to lethal. Mild illnesses include some cases of the common cold. While more lethal varieties can cause SARS, MERS, and COVID-19.

What is Coronavirus Disease?

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The disease was first identified in December 2019 in Wuhan, and has since spread globally. This has resulted in the ongoing 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic. Common symptoms include fever, cough, and shortness of breath. Other symptoms may include fatigue, muscle pain, diarrhoea, sore throat, loss of smell, and abdominal pain. The time from exposure to onset of symptoms is typically around five days. But it may range from two to fourteen days. While the majority of cases result in mild symptoms, some progress to viral pneumonia and multi-organ failure.

How did COVID-19 begin?

An investigation was launched in early January 2020 as health authorities in Wuhan, Hubei, China, reported a cluster of viral pneumonia cases of unknown cause on 31 December 2019, . The virus has a zoonotic origin because the cases mostly had links to the Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market . SARS-CoV-2, a newly discovered virus closely related to bat coronaviruses, pangolin coronaviruses, and SARS-CoV is the virus that caused the outbreak.

In March and April 2020, scientists reported that the virus originated naturally.

The earliest known person with symptoms was later discovered to have fallen ill on 1 December 2019, and that person did not have visible connections with the wet market cluster. But two-thirds of the early cluster of cases reported in December 2019 had a link with the market. On 13 March 2020, an unverified report from the South China Morning Post suggested a case traced back to 17 November 2019, in a 55-year-old from Hubei, may have been the first.

The number of cases doubled approximately every seven and a half days during the early stages of the outbreak. As Wuhan is a transport hub and major rail interchange and due to the Chinese New Year migration in early and mid-January 2020, the virus spread to other Chinese provinces, . On 20 January, China reported nearly 140 new cases in one day, including two people in Beijing and one in Shenzhen. Later official data shows that 6,174 people had already developed symptoms by 20 January 2020.

The United States had overtaken China and Italy with the highest number of confirmed cases in the world by march 26. Research on coronavirus genomes indicates the majority of COVID-19 cases in New York came from European travelers, rather than directly from China or any other Asian country.

Refrences-

1.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2019–20_coronavirus_pandemic
2.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coronavirus_disease_2019
3.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Socio-economic_impact_of_the_2019–20_coronavirus_pandemic
4.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coronavirus_disease_2019
5.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coronavirus

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How do thoughts become things?

I’m sure we all have heard that thoughts become things, and at some point in our lives we have had some experiences which prove this. We quite often say this to ourselves that whatever I was thinking, exactly the same thing has happened. Answer to how this happens is, the thoughts which excites us the most, which are most interesting to a us and which are recurrent, we tend to follow them and our actions are in accordance with them hence giving us the result. This is how thoughts become things.

Well, human mind is complex. At a time, a lot of different thoughts are running in our minds. According to a study there are 50,000-70,000 thoughts that come in our mind each day. And if we do the math it means we get 52-72 thoughts a minute, that is approximately 1 thought per second. I think these are a lot thoughts to deal with, in a particular day.

How a person processes them determines his state of mind. If negative thoughts outnumber positive ones, then the person suffers from depression and if positive thoughts outnumber negative ones then the person is happy. Our thought processing determines how we feel . The kind of thoughts that run in our mind influences the release of certain chemicals in our brains which causes us to feel a particular way.

Taking example from science, there is a phenomenon known as Resonance . It the tendency of a system to vibrate with increasing amplitudes at some frequency of oscillation. I think this applies to our thinking process as well. A lot of negative thinking will attract negativity in our lives, likewise positive thinking will attract positivity. 

‘The Secret’ emphasizes a great deal on how Thoughts become things. The book focuses on the power of positive thinking and how like attracts like. It mentions that if we think positive , then positive energies will be emitted from our mind and we will attract more positivity from the universe.

Our thinking process also determine, the way of life we are living. So by controlling it we can lead the life we want to live. From my own experience, its simple concept but very difficult to follow. But human mind is great , if we convince ourselves then nothing is difficult to achieve. Hence by thinking positive we can translate positive thinking to positive actions thereby attracting positive results.

Refrence-

https://www.huffpost.com/entry/healthy-relationships_b_3307916

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