Skin Care

Yeah! this lockdown phase is getting on our nerves, but we all are into this together. And it’s very important to look after ourselves in this crucial time. Now as we are inside too much we have excessive time to pamper ourselves. Many of us think, we are inside why we need to take skin care, but our skin need pampering 24*7.

From potato and papaya peels to lemon juice, using home remedies is one of the best and most affordable ways of getting flawless skin. As you can find most of the ingredients in your kitchen, you can prepare do-it-yourself face masks for healthy skin. Save your skin from damage with these skin care home remedies that will be your skin’s knight in shining armour!

Remedies for Dull and Dry Skin

Milk plus honey is magical

Honey and milk can do wonders in bringing out a flawless glow which every woman craves for. Milk helps in preventing acne and moisturizes the skin well. People with sensitive skin can use face washes that contain no chemicals or paraben.

Home-made Coconut moisturiser

This needs just three ingredients – ½ cup coconut oil, few drops of lavender oil and 1-2 vitamin-E capsules. Coconut oil comforts dull skin by replenishing the moisture content and neutralising inflammations while lavender oil and vitamin E promotes skin health for an overall brighter appearance.

Turmeric can do wonders

Turmeric consists of natural anti-oxidant, antiseptic and skin brightening properties. Applying a paste of turmeric will help remove tan and treat blemishes. Lemon is high in Vitamin C and antioxidants, making it another excellent skin brightener. A paste made with curd as base and mixed with turmeric and lemon is excellent for removing tanning. 

Aloe-Vera Gel Mask

Provide your skin with intense nourishment with this 1 ingredient face mask for a total transformation. Dubbed as the ‘plant of immortality’ by the ancient Egyptians, aloe vera has proven to improve dryness. Use a fresh leaf and dig out the clear gel from inside. Rinse out this gel and then apply onto cleansed skin for 5 – 10 minutes.

Skin Care for Acne-prone Skin

Tomato scrub

Grab an old t-shirt and start with a ten-minute steam facial to open up the pores. Dip half a tomato into sugar and use this as a natural scrub. Tomatoes are loaded with antioxidants and vitamin C. This soothes inflammations and rids your skin of dead cells when applied topically.Tomatoes help in shrinking pores. Mix tomato juice with a few drops of lemon and apply on your face. Rinse with lukewarm water. Regular use of this will give you the best results. Tomatoes also help in reducing blackheads. Massage your blackhead prone area with tomato slices to deal with blackheads. 

Yoghurt mask

Create a mixture with 2 tbsp yoghurt, 1/2 tsp turmeric and 1 tsp fullers earth (optional) for a cleansing face mask. Yoghurt has healing properties, and it also moisturises your skin, clears blemishes and fights acne. Turmeric is your skin’s best friend and has been used since ancient times for lustrous and problem-free skin.

Combine honey and cinnamon

People suffering from acne should use a homemade mask made with honey and cinnamon. This mask helps in reducing active acne. Apply fresh Aloe Vera pulp as it is a great moisturiser for acne prone dry skin.

Oily Skin

Banana and honey mask

Mash one small ripe banana and add 1-2 spoons of honey for a deep cleansing and revitalising mask. Banana contains potassium which moisturises and gives you wrinkle-free skin while destroying bacteria. It’s a natural exfoliant that removes sebum and dead skin. Honey soothes the skin, delays ageing and is an excellent skin conditioner.

Cucumber mask

Make this mask with 3 spoons of cucumber juice and 1 spoon of lemon juice. Add fullers’ earth to make a thick paste. Apply evenly over face and neck for a spa treatment in the lap of Mother Nature to treat oily skin. It tightens pores, soothes the skin and is a great toner.

Sensitive Skin

Potato mask

Mash half a small potato and mix it in with 1 spoon of honey and 1 spoon of almond oil. Use this mask once or twice a week to relive your skin of dryness, redness and sensitivity. It will have your skin feeling less irritated and give you crystal clear skin. The Vitamin C and B complex neutralises the skin while removing tan and soothing sunburns.

Raw Milk mask

Raw milk is unpasteurised milk that holds an unbeatable freshness and is a natural cleanser. It will keep your skin sufficiently hydrated while maintaining the firmness and elasticity. Use it as it is or mix it with honey and ground oats for extra exfoliation.

Rose water is the basic

Rose essential oil or rose water is one of the best toners out there, which is suitable for all skin types. Store it in a spray bottle and use it twice a day. It would help to soothe and calm the skin, balance ph levels, and help repair the skin’s elasticity.

So, these are simple tips that can help your skin to rejuvenate and also, protects the skin from becoming dull and pale.

That’s all for skin care. If you know more home remedies do share in your comment.

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ART – An Expression of Emotions.

Being an artist is not just about picking up pencil and colors and just draw or paint anything. Art can and does mean so much to so many people in different forms. An artist see the word in a different way through his/her artwork. Moreover art is way to explore life, world and even themselves. It can be exciting, empowering. Art is an expression of emotions.

It is the activity by which a person, having experience an emotion, intentionally transmits it to others” – Leo Tolstoy

Art is be anything and everything you let it !

The power of art –

It is a way of expression, a way of joy, making people understand things which can’t be done verbally. In fact, we can say that everything that is beautiful is art. Art provides mankind with a diverse range of necessities and comforts.However most people don’t realize how much of a role art plays in our lives. Just how much we rely on art in all of its forms in our everyday lives. Art does not show people what to do, yet engaging with a good work. It connects us to the senses of our body and mind.

Most of us get moved by a work of art, whether it is a song, a play, a poem or a painting. We are transport to a whole new place. We become more familiar with the feeling which was unfamiliar to us but which we did not actively focus on before. This transformative experience is what art is constantly seeking. We are surrounded by art in all sense. It just we need to look through a different perspective. Art has always been around in one form or another. It is helping the mankind in the development of diverse activities and their outcomes.

Art is very important in the society because it is an essential ingredient to empowering the hearts of people. When activists are showing images of children suffering from poverty or oppression in their campaigns, this is the art pulling the heartstrings of society’s elite and powerful to make changes.Similarly, when photographers publish the photos of war-torn areas, it catches the attention of masses whose hearts reach out for those who need help.When an artist creates great music and movies, it entertains people around the world. This is art, making a difference in society.A very modern example of art in action is street art. 

Art is also a remarkable mode of depicting culture from all over the world.

Art has the power to take cultural practices from where they are from and then transport and integrate them into different parts of the world without losing their identity. People have now recognize how powerful art can be. It is also consider as a strong therapy.

We use the arts for our entertainment, cultural appreciation, aesthetics, personal improvement, and even social change. We use the arts in order to thrive in this world.

That’s all for art- an expression of emotions.

Do, share your thoughts – What does art mean to you?



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Theories of Fashion Adoption

Fashion moves from one person to the other. Therefore, to study fashion adoption, one must know those people who are the first to adopt a fashion. These people are fashion leaders. Fashion theories indicates the process of fashion ideas. The theories explain the fashion trend. It also tells about how fashion moves from one stage to other stage. The following theories of fashion adoption explain the different ways in which fashion knowledge and adoption moves from one person to the other.

The Theories of Fashion Adoption are –
  • The Trickle Down or Downward Flow Theory
  • Horizontal Flow Theory or The Trickle Across
  • The Trickle Up or Upward Flow Theory

The Trickle Down or Downward Flow Theory

The trickle down is the oldest theory of fashion adoption. Higher class people who are up in the social pyramid maintains this theory. They are the first to adopt any style before it become a fashion. While people of lower social classes who tend to copy the fashion trends follow the higher classes. In this way, the acceptance of style moves in a downward flow.

This theory is based on the belief that the lower classes look up to the higher classes for inspiration. On the other hand the higher classes tend to disassociate from the styles which have moved to lower levels. Therefore, hunt for something new by the high-class consumers starts. The economics of the fashion industry support this theory. This is because each new fashion is introduced at a high-class level as expensive merchandise, with only the affluent class possessing the money to indulge it. The new introduce styles are expensive to cover the experimentation costs. With the style becoming popular, its copies are introduce in the market at a lower price. Then the upper class moves on to try something new.

The Trickle Across or Horizontal Flow Theory

According to this theory there exist social groups in each class of society that have their own fashion leaders and followers. The fashion moves horizontally in these social groups. This theory emerged due to the fast changing face of communication. As well as the production industries are making fashion available to everyone at same time for easy adoption. Therefore, fashion leaders of all social groups tend to adopt fashion at the same time. While fashion is adopted by every group in a society but this adoption is dependent on the fashion requirement of an individual.

The Trickle Up or Upward Flow Theory

Trickle up theory is explained by the fashion adoption process, which became prevalent in the 1960s and 1970s. According to this theory, the youngster of the low income groups are the one to try out some daring styles. As their social position does not restrict their behaviour. Once these groups have adopted the fashion, to can move to the middle class, who are more concerned about their social position.

Fashion Leaders and Followers

The above explain theories of fashion adoption one thing in common: they recognize the existence of fashion leaders and followers.

Fashion Leaders

There are very small percentage of fashion leaders in the society. They are not the creator of fashion, because of them the style gets popularity. They are the ones who discover and wear new styles. These people are responsible for introduction of new styles.

Fashion leaders also known as fashion innovator, is the first person to try out new designs. Fashion leaders are quite famous and grab the attention of the media. The general public look up to them to for inspiration. People specially fashion followers keenly observe their fashion leaders and imitate their dressing style. For example the famous purple saree worn by madhuri dixit in hum apke hai kaun. That saree style and color is still in fashion.

On the other hand people who follow or imitate these fashion leaders are their fashion followers. Most of the people in the society belong to this group. They are responsible for the existence of fashion industries. As mass production and distribution is possible only when a large number of consumers adopt a fashion. There are various reasons for people to become fashion followers rather than leaders. It may be because they feel insecure in trying something new, or they admire a famous personality. Or they simply lack interest and time to be a fashion leader.

So that’s all for theories of fashion adoption and fashion leaders and followers.

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Choose Platform for app development

Choose Platform for app development is always a big task. Few years back this answer will be quite easy to explain as there were only few platforms available for app development which was Android native and Objective C for Ios. But In today’s era there are numerous technologies by which we can achieve this task for development some of the hot technologies are react-native, flutter, xamarin, ionic, phone gap. Such technologies are called hybrid applications. Now lets see Which platform to choose for mobile application development.

What are hybrid Apps?

A (hybrid app) is a software application that combines elements of both native apps and web applications. Once they are downloaded from an app store and installed locally, the shell is able to connect to whatever capabilities the mobile platform provides through a browser that’s embedded in the app.

Why does we need hybrid Apps?

When developed across multiple platforms (iOS, Android, etc.), the same HTML components can be used for different mobile OS. This significantly reduces development costs and effort. A hybrid App bypasses that, as maintaining the content is as simple as updating a webpage, and can be done when needed.

Difference between Hybrid and Native Apps –

Choose Platform for app development
Native AppsHybrid Apps
Native apps built with specific technology and language for specific platform like Java, kotlin for Android, Swift for iOS. Hybrid apps are built using web technologies like HTML, CSS and JavaScript
Runs on native platform Hybrid app runs in webView (A view that displays web pages, uses the same engine of browser but no browser like widgets)
Multiple code for different platform Single code management for multiple mobile platforms

Pros of Native app development

  • Performance – at any day performance of native is far better than hybrid app.
  • Scalability – Native apps can be configured quickly because they should be compatible with a single platform.
  • Offline Performance – Going native is the best option if there is no connectivity. Planners, organizers, navigators and even games can perform offline as their content has been already downloaded.
  • Updates – As support is quite fast you can get new updates quite regularly.

Pros of Hybrid app development

  • Cost effective – you don’t have to find multiple resources for same application. One person can develop the application
  • Maintenance – It is low on maintenance as less people required for do the task.
  • Faster deployment – Depends on the feature but it is quite fast for development.

Cons of native and hybrid app development

  • When we talk about high performance hybrid app is still lack behind as it has limited processing as compared to native.
  • As for pricing hybrid app has the upper hand as it is cost effective.
  • As per the functionality is concerned native app is better.

Choose Platform for app development it depends on the following points

  • pricing
  • resources
  • Functionality
  • Target Audience
  • Time for the project
  • Maintenance

But I personally prefer Native app development because in the longer run It will overcome the hybrid app in any scenario listed.

That’s all for Which platform to choose for mobile application development.

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Trek Freak or a Beach Lover

Wanderlust a strong desire to travel.

One believes the world is a book, and those who do not travel read only one page. People travel because it makes them realize how much they haven’t seen, how much they are not going to see, and how much they still need to see. So we are here to help you out discover yourself as a “Trek Freak or a Beach Lover”.

Some say “they have got a crush on the world”.

Whereas some say “they are born to travel”.

But few can only “fulfill the desire to travel”.

Everyone travels in their life but only few wanders. The desire to travel makes a man happy go lucky in their own way.

It all depends on the person’s taste whether he is a trek freak or a beach lover. What calls him the most – the depths of waters, or the might of mountains? The sound of waves, or the peace and quiet of mountains? A lovely beach vacation or a serene and mountain retreat? 

The options  may differ for every traveler but it is incredible to observe how certain characteristics of a traveler leads them to make a choice between a beach or mountains.

“A beach is not only a sweep of sand, but shells of sea creatures, the sea glass, the seaweed, the incongruous objects washed up by the ocean.”- Henry Grunwald


“Somewhere between the bottom of the climb and the summit is the answer to the mystery why we climb.”-Greg Child

Coming from a family who has no culture of travelling at all is tough because you will be having lots of desire to visit various places . At that moment of time one realizes what kinda person he is !

 So helping you out to decide for yourself whether you’re a Trek Freak or a Beach Lover based on these  personality traits.

1.A Chatterbox OR A Listener

Indulging into a conversation with someone is something a beach person is excellent at. Beaches are beautiful spot for sunset and if empty its very soothing. You can talk your heart out and can relax over there. Whereas  a mountain person can be a great listener as for them it is simply about how calming that view can be. That impossible panorama that one gets to see above, feel like they’re above the clouds and they have touched it.

2.An Object-oriented Person OR A Fairy Tale Person

In the world of people high on mountains, some likes to spend fairy tale nights at the beach with their loved ones. This brings them the inner peace and relaxation hearing the sound of the waves which slightly touches their feet is enormous pleasure.

Though the Mountain man is a person with the capability of romancing the nature. The sheer beauty and magnanimity of the mountains is so mesmerizing that one can  watch them without batting an eyelid.

3.Hero personality OR Peace-Lovers

Yes! Mountains being the symbol of beauty and happiness, mountains signifies and teaches us how to deal with the problems of the life. They not only increase your strength but mental power too. The catchy winds of treks, the struggle for basics in life, the chirping of the birds, the steep dives of valleys, the closure with the clouds, the dew like freshness of air that purifies even the impure, everything has a message for you. 

Whereas for a beach lover walking on the soft and wet sand with the cool breeze flowing in my face is as soothing as rain. So they like to glare into the deep blue water that seems to be endless.

4.Believe in carpe deim

So beach lovers mostly believe living to seize the day.And they know how to enjoy the present moment without worrying about the future. They know how to live in the present and they are found to be more joyous. Water babies are music lovers too.

5.An Artist OR A Philosopher

There can never be low key people around you on a beach. From their way of talking, to the way they keep everyone entertained with their sense of humor, is truly toxic. On the other hand, a mountain person can be a great company only if you share similar interests with them. Being a thinker by nature, mountain people give a lot of thought to their words and action. However, whether the person loves beach or mountains, they are great to be with!

If by reading it all , you wish to be everywhere and you wonder who you are, beach or mountain person… then I will tell you, go and explore yourself ! We, travelers, can only plan where we can go first. Think beyond the greed of being everywhere, and you will know where you need to be.

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Fashion Components and Fashion Cycle

Fashion design does not just happen, nor does the designer wave magic wand to create a new design. It involves the combination of four fashion components – silhouette, details, texture and color. A new fashion is evolve through a change in one or more of these basic components. Similarly fashion does not get popular with just a blink. Lets know discuss about fashion components and fashion cycle.

Fashion Components

Silhouette –

Silhouette is the overall outline of a costume. It is the basic ingredient that changes slightly with each new season. It is also refer to as “shape” or “form.” Women have worn countless silhouettes throughout the centuries. There are actually only three basic forms – straight or tubular; bell-shaped or bouffant and the bustle or back fullness. These have may variations. Today, most fashion experts include four variations on the tubular silhouette; slim, rectangle, wedge and A-line.

Details –

Details are that individual element which give silhouette it form or shape. For instance, trimmings, skirts and pants length and width, shoulder, waist and sleeve treatment. Through the change in details, silhouette gradually evolve from one to another. Reversal of the trend takes place when the trend reaches to an extreme. Variations in detail allow both designer and consumer to express their individuality freely. To emphasize a natural-waistline silhouette, for example, a slender woman might choose a simple wide belt, a decorated belt, or a belt in a contrasting color. To express his individuality, a man might emphasize the wide shoulder look with epaulets or heavy shoulder pads.

Texture –

It is the most significant components of fashion. Texture is the look or feel of the material, woven or nonwoven. It can affect the appearance of the silhouette. By giving it a bulky or slender look, depending on the roughness or smoothness of the material. Texture influences the drape of the garment. It also affects the color of a fabric by causing the surface to either reflect or absorb light. Rough textures absorb light, causing the colors to appear flat. Smooth textures reflect light, causing them to appear brighter.

Color –

Color has major consideration in women’s clothing. Today, color is a key factor in apparel selection for both sexes. Color is important in advertising, packaging and store decor as well.

Color symbolism often varies with geographical location. While white is the western world’s symbol of purity, worn by brides. But in india it is a color of mourning. Today, a fashion designer’s color palette changes with consumers’ preferences. Merchants must develop an eye for color- not only for the specific hues and values popular in a given seasons, but also for indications of possible trends in consumer preference.

So the fashion components clear now lets see fashion cycle.

Fashion Cycle –

Fashion designers expose their consumers to a multitude of new styles in each season. Some get rejection immediately by the press or by the buyer on the retail level, but others get acceptance for a time, as demonstrated by consumers purchasing and wearing them.

All fashion moves in cycles. The term fashion cycle refers to the rise, wide popularity and then decline in acceptance of a style. However, the fashion cycle is represented by a bell-shape curve.

Every fashion cycle passes through five stages ; 1) introduction 2) rise 3) culmination or peak 4)decline and 5) rejection or obsolescence.

1. Introduction of a Style

  Designers interpret their research and creative ideas into appeal or accessories and then offer the new styles to the public. Designers create new designs by changing elements such as line, shape, color , fabric, and details and their relationship to one another. New creations referred to as the “latest fashions” may not yet be accepted by anyone. At this first stage of the cycle, fashion implies only style and newness.

2. Increase in Popularity

If a new style is purchase, worn, and seen by many people, it may attract the attention of buyers, the press, and the public. In self-defense, most couture and high – priced designers now have secondary bridge and or diffusion lines that sell at lower prices, so that they can sell their designs in greater quantities.

The popularity of a style may further increase through copying and adaptation. Some designers or stylists may modify a popular style to suit the needs and price range of their own customers. Some manufacturers may copy it with less expensive fabric and less detail it order to all the style at lower prices.

3. Peak of Popularity

When a fashion is at the height of its popularity, it may be in such demand that many manufacturers copy it or produce adaptations of it at many price levels. Some designers get flatter by copying and others are resentful. There is very fine line between adaptations and knockoffs.

Volume production requires a likelihood of mass acceptance. Therefore, volume manufacturers carefully study sales trends because their customers want clothes that are in the mainstream of fashion.

4. Decline in Popularity

Eventually, so many copies are mass produce that fashion –conscious people tire of the style and begin to look for something new. Consumers still wear garments in the style, but they are no longer willing to buy them at regular prices. Retail stores put such declining styles on sale racks, hoping to make room for new merchandise.

5. Rejection of a Style or Obsolescence

In the last phase of fashion cycle, some consumers have already turned to new looks, thus beginning a new cycle. The rejection or discarding of a style just because it is out of fashion is known as consumer obsolescence. As early as 1600, Shakespeare wrote that “fashion wears out more apparel than the man”. 

here was the fashion components and fashion cycle.


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What are the impacts?

The impacts of 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic is visible in the political systems of multiple countries. It has causing suspensions of legislative activities, isolation or deaths of multiple politicians. Also elections were rescheduled due to fears of spread of the virus.

China –

The US government is criticizing the Chinese government. UK Minister for the Cabinet Office Michael Gove, and others are also criticizing the Chinese governmentfor its handling of the pandemic. While a number of provincial-level administrators of the CCP were dismissed over their handling of the quarantine efforts in central China.


In early March, the Italian government criticised the European Union’s lack of solidarity with coronavirus-affected Italy. But on 22 March, Russian president Vladimir Putin had the Russian army send military medics and other medical equipment to Italy.

Education –

The pandemic has affected educational systems worldwide, leading to the near-total closures of schools, universities and colleges.. School closures in response to COVID-19 have shed light on various social and economic issues. Issues such as student debt, digital learning, food insecurity, and homelessness, as well as access to childcare, health care etc. The impact is more severe for disadvantaged children and their families. It is causing interrupted learning, compromised nutrition, childcare problems, and consequent economic cost to families who could not work.

Socio-Economic –

The socio-economic impacts of the 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic has had far- reaching consequences beyond the spread of the COVID-19 disease itself and efforts to quarantine it. While the SARS-CoV-2 virus has spread around the globe, concerns have shifted from supply-side manufacturing issues to decreased business in the services sector. The coronavirus pandemic is causing the largest global recession in history. With more than a third of the global population at the time being placed on lockdown.

Culture –

The pandemic is affecting performing arts and cultural heritage sectors profoundly , impacting organisations’ operations as well as individuals—both employed and independent—globally. Arts and culture sector organisations attempted to uphold their (often publicly funded) mission to provide access to cultural heritage to the community, while maintaining the safety of their employees and the public, and support artists where possible.

Environment and climate –

The worldwide disruption caused by the coronavirus pandemic has resulted in numerous impacts on the environment and the climate. The severe decline in planned travel[923] has caused many regions to experience a drop in air pollution. In China, lockdowns and other measures resulted in a 25 percent reduction in carbon emissions, which one Earth systems scientist estimated may have saved at least 77,000 lives over two months. However, the outbreak has also disrupted environmental diplomacy efforts, including causing the postponement of the 2020 United Nations Climate Change Conference, and the economic fallout from it is predict to slow investment in green energy technologies.

Xenophobia and racism –

Since the outbreak of COVID-19, heightened prejudice and xenophobia have been noted toward people of Chinese & East Asian descent. Also xenophobia is rising against people from hotspots in Europe, the United States and other countries. People are observing incidents of fear, suspicion, and hostility in many countries.

Domestic violence –

Many countries have reported an increase in domestic violence and intimate partner violence attributed to lockdowns amid the 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic.

Misinformation –

Misinformation related to the 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic consists of conspiracy theories and disinformation that emerged regarding the origin, scale, prevention and treatment surrounding the COVID-19 disease and the ensuing pandemic related to the SARS- CoV-2 virus. Meanwhile medical misinformation about ways to prevent, treat, and self diagnose coronavirus disease has circulated on social media. Some false claims may be commercial scams offering at- home tests, suppose preventives, and “miracle” cures. The World Health Organization has declared an “epidemic” of incorrect information about the virus, which poses risks to global health.


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4.CORONAVIRUS EXPLAINED-current situation,duration and global response.

What is the current situation?

For current situation, latest stats and figures about COVID-19 visit
Currently there are more than 2.4M cases and more than 166k deaths so far. Coronavirus pandemic has taken over 206 countries and territories with the United States being the worst hit country. It has brought the world to a standstill. Many countries are imposing strict lockdown in order to contain the spread of the disease. But the count of coronavirus patients is
continuously on the rise. This has overwhelmed the health care system of all major countries with hospital being overcrowded.

Due to the coronavirus many doctors and frontline workers have lost their life. Due to the sudden increase in number of cases , there arose shortage of masks, PPE , ventilators and other medical supplies.

What will be its duration?

The WHO asserts that the pandemic can be controlled. The peak and ultimate duration of the outbreak are uncertain and may differ by location. Maciej Boni of Penn State University stated, “If left unchecked, infectious outbreaks typically plateau and then start to decline when the disease runs out of available hosts. But it’s almost impossible to make any sensible projection right now about when that will be”. The Chinese government’s senior medical adviser Zhong Nanshan argue that “it could be over by June” if all countries can be mobilise to follow the WHO’s advice on measures to stop the spread of the virus. On 17 March, Adam Kucharski of the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine said SARS-CoV-2 “is going to be circulating, potentially for a year or two”.

According to Imperial College study by Neil Ferguson, physical distancing & other measures will be required until a vaccine becomes available. William Schaffner of Vanderbilt University states “I think it’s unlikely that this coronavirus—because it’s so readily transmissible—will disappear completely”. And it “might turn into a seasonal disease, making a comeback every year”. The virulence of the comeback would depend on herd immunity and the extent of mutation.

What is the global response?

Due to the pandemic, many countries have imposed entry bans for their citizens or recent travellers to most affected areas. Other countries and regions have imposed global restrictions that apply to all foreign countries and territories. Also restrictions are there ro prevent their own citizens from travelling overseas.

Owing to the effective quarantine of public transport in Wuhan and Hubei, several countries evacuated their citizens and diplomatic staff from the area, primarily through chartered flights of the home nation, with Chinese authorities providing clearance. Canada, the United States, Japan, India, Sri Lanka, Australia, France, Argentina, Germany, and Thailand were among the first to plan the evacuation of their citizens.

International governmental organisations are addressing the economic and social impacts of the COVID-19 crisis. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development has launched a platform to provide timely and comprehensive information on policy responses in countries around the world, as well as viewpoints and advice. From policies to strengthen health systems and the world economy to addressing the effects of lock-down and restrictions on travel, the digital hub includes a Country Policy Tracker, and aims to help countries learn from each other and to facilitate a coordinated global response to the coronavirus challenge.


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Fashion and it’s Terminology

Fashion is a part of our day-to-day life. It affects the way we lead our lives. These days fashion has become a part of our personality and individuality. In today’s world fashion is a big business employing thousands of people. However one must know the meaning of fashion and it’s terminology. What is the difference between fashion, stye and design? Just what do high fashion, mass fashion, taste, classic and fad mean? To avoid confusion when discussing fashion, we must first understand the meaning of fashion and it’s terminology.

Here are the fashion and its terminology –

Fashion –

The term fashion is all about style. A fashion is a style that is accept and used by the majority of a group at any one time. Not matter how small that group is. A fashion is always based on some particular style. Fashion is always new even when an old fashion is receive, because styles styles are reintroduce with newness for fresh appeal. A fashion is a fact of social psychology. But not every style is a fashion. A style is usually a creation from an artist or a designer.

Definitions –

“Fashion is a form of ugliness so intolerable that we have to alter it every six months”. –Oscar Wilde

“Fashion wear out more apparel than the man.” –Shakespeare

The most widely recognized fashion authority defines fashion as –

“Fashion is nothing more or less than the prevailing style at a given time.” – Dr. Paul H. Nystrom

A style may be old or new, beautiful or ugly, good or bad. A style is a style even if it never receives the slightest acceptance. Fashion appeals to many different groups and can be categorize according to the group to which they appeal. As fashion communicates the status of a person in the society and expresses his individuality, it needs to be display and expose to a number of people to be adopt by them. For instance skirts, pants, fit kurtas were in fashion during the 1970s and have attract the fancy of the wearer to be back in fashion.

Fashion always displays something new to attract people’s interest and desire for change, and gain acceptance. Fashion satisfies the need for self-beautification and adornment. It is a reflection of the times in which it is popular. It showcases the lifestyle and thought process of the people adoring the fashion. The value system, class system and activities that prevail during that time can also be known form the styles in fashion.

High Fashion and Mass Fashion –

High fashion or Haute Couture refers to those new styles that are special in their overall appeal. They are manufacture in limited numbers and introduce to exclusive clientele of fashion leaders. In other words it refers to a new style accepted by a limited number of fashion leaders. These fashion leaders want to be the first to adopt changes and innovation in fashion. High-fashion styles are generally introduce and sold in small quantities and at relatively high prices. As they have newness in the design, superfine quality fabric, perfect workmanship and are made as per client size only.

To contrast with high fashion, mass fashion or volume fashion, consists of styles that are widely accepted. High fashion needs wide acceptance from a large number of people for it to become mass fashion. The production and selling of these garments is usually in large quantities at moderate to low prices. These appeals to the greatest majority of fashion-conscious consumers. Mass fashion accounts for the majority of sales in the fashion business. Mass fashion is the “bread and butter” of the fashion banquet !

Style –

To understand fashion and it’s terminology one must know the meaning of style.In this world, everything has got a style as style refers to a distinctive characteristics of a thing. The first step in understanding fashion is to distinguish between “fashion” and “style”. These words that most people use interchangeably although there is an immense difference in their meanings. Convertibles, vans,multi-utility vehicles are all automobiles with different styles. Similarly, there is Mughal, European and French style of architecture.

In terms of apparel designing, style is the characteristic or distinctive appearance of a garment. It is a combination of features that makes it different from other garments. For example, dresses are one style of apparel, trousers are another and skirts are another. Riding jackets are different from safari jackets as they are from blazer jackets. At times style there exist a number of styles each very different and individualistic in its looks. For instance, straight skirt, A-line skirt, pleated skirt, circular skirt are all examples of styles within a style.

Although styles come and go as acceptance, specific style remains a style whether it is currently in fashion or not. As style refers to distinctive characteristics, it remains a style, whether it is currently accept as fashion statement or not. Some styles are named after the period of history in they originated such as Roman, Greek. When such styles return to fashion, their basic elements remain the same. They slightly get modifies to conform to the current fashion trends.

Design –

There can be many variations of detail within a specific style. A design is a particular or individual interpretation, version, or treatment of a style. In other words, a design is a composition of silhouette, color, texture, details which create specific versions of style. For example, coat is a style; increasing or decreasing its length, adding or reducing it fullness or varying sleeves will give unlimited variety of design. A style may be express in many designs, all different, yet all related because they are in same style.

Once a style gains acceptance, many different designs of same style are develop. This is done by altering its composing elements and introduce in the market by apparel manufacturers.

In the fashion industries, manufacturers and retailers assign a number to each individual design produce. This is style number. The style number of a product identifies it for manufacturing, ordering and selling purposes. In this instance, the term “style number” is use rather than “design number”, even though a design is being identified.

Trend –

A fashion trend refers to the general course of movement, direction or flow that fashions in clothing follow. For example, you often read in fashion magazines “there is a trend toward longer skirts”. It means that several designers, including some leading ones, are showing longer skirts. Leading retailers are buying them, and fashion-forward customers are wearing them. Though designers are the main force behind the introduction of a design. But its ultimate success depends on the consumer, who decides on the acceptance of a particular design.

The changes in design from one season to the next may be subtle, but they follow a trend. A fashion designer always designs for the forthcoming season. It is vital for him/her to recognize the trends and designs accordingly. The new styles gaining acceptance in the industry are refer to as fashion forward and the experimental and shocking fashions are known as avant garde.

Taste –

In fashion, taste refers to the outlook of what is and what is not according to a given occasion. Therefore a good fashion taste not only means artistically pleasing but also what is appropriate for a specific situation. A style such as an evening gown, may be beautiful. But wearing it to a morning wedding, it may not be considered in good taste. Many styles are beautiful, but if they are not in fashion, good taste prevents their use. On the other hand, a present fashion may be ugly but its common acceptance means it is in good taste.

Nystrom described the relationship of good taste and fashion as –

“Good taste essentially is making the most artistic use of current fashion… bridging the gap between good art and common usage.”

Classic –

Classic refers to the style that stay. It consider to be in good taste for long period. They are exceptions to the usual movement of styles through the fashion life cycle. The characteristics are its simplicity of design and suitability to clothing needs of large group. In other words it is a style which satisfies the needs of people. And stay in fashion for an extended period of time.

For example – polo neck sweaters, cardigans, blazers, men’s suit, button down collar shirts, blue denim jeans etc. Among the accessories, the pump-style shoe, the loafer, necklace and the clutch handbag are also classics. For young children overalls and one-piece pajamas have become classics.

Their looks may change at times, but these changes are subtle. Material, texture, design, details, cut and shape of garment use to introduce these changes.

Fads –

A fad is a short-lived fashion. The fad starts by being quickly accepted and then quickly imitated by others. It is a minor fashion adopted by a group of people for a short period of time. Fads are those designs that are extreme and exaggerating. It often begin in low-price ranges, relatively easy to copy. Therefore floods the market in a very short time. Fads follow the same cycle as fashion do, but their popularity rise is much faster. Their acceptance much shorter, and their decline much more rapid than that of a true fashion.

They are known as miniature fashion because their short stay for a season. Nowadays, it is difficult to draw a line between fads and fashions. As most fads become fashion and stay for several seasons. Hair dye in patches, hot pants, bell-bottoms, patiala salwar are all examples of fads.

Couture (Koo-ture)

It isn’t in fashion and it’s terminology but are related to this topic. French term for business in which original apparel designs are created by designers & the items are manufactured in the design house using exceptionally fine sewing & tailoring and expensive fabrics.

Haute Couture (oat koo-toor)

Haute couture (French for “high sewing” or “high dressmaking”) refers to the creation of exclusive custom-fitted clothing. It is made to order for a specific customer, and it is usually made from high-quality, expensive fabric and sewn with extreme attention to detail and finish, often using time-consuming, hand-executed techniques. As it isn’t come in fashion and it’s terminology but is a related point.

So these were the meaning of fashion and its terminology.

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3.CORONAVIRUS EXPLAINED- diagnosis, treatment and containment .

What is the diagnosis of COVID-19 ?

Infection by the virus can be provisionally diagnosed on the basis of symptoms. Although confirmation is ultimately by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) of infected secretions or CT imaging. A study comparing PCR to CT in Wuhan suggests CT is significantly more sensitive than PCR. Though less specific, with many of its imaging features overlapping with other pneumonias and disease processes. But the American College of Radiology recommends that to screen for or as a first-line test to diagnose COVID-19 .

What is the treatment for COVID-19?

There are no specific antiviral medications for COVID-19, but development efforts are underway, including testing of existing medications. Taking over-the-counter cold medications, drinking fluids, and resting may help alleviate symptoms. Depending on the severity, oxygen therapy, intravenous fluids, and breathing support may be required. But the use of steroids may worsen outcomes. Meanwhile investigation is going on several compounds for use in treating COVID-19. These compounds are useful for treating other viral diseases.

There is no available vaccine, but various agencies are actively developing vaccine candidates.They are using previous work on SARS-CoV because SARS-CoV & SARS-CoV-2 both use ACE2 receptor to enter human cells.

Investigation is going on three vaccination strategies. First, researchers aim to build a whole virus vaccine. The use of such a virus, be it inactive or dead, aims to elicit a prompt immune response of the human body to a new infection with COVID-19. A second strategy, subunit vaccines, aims to create a vaccine that sensitises the immune system to certain subunits of the virus. In the case of SARS-CoV-2, such research focuses on the S-spike protein that helps the virus intrude the ACE2 enzyme receptor. While a third strategy is that of the nucleic acid vaccines (DNA or RNA vaccines, a novel technique for creating a vaccination). Testing these experimental vaccines for safety and efficacy is essential.

On 16 March 2020, the first clinical trial of a vaccine started with four volunteers in Seattle. The vaccine contains a harmless genetic code copied from the virus that causes the disease.Antibody dependent enhancement has been suggested as a potential challenge for vaccine development for SARS-COV-2, but this is controversial.

What are the control strategies?

Strategies in the control of an outbreak are containment or suppression, and mitigation. Containment occurs in the early stages of the outbreak and aims to trace and isolate those infected as well as introduce other measures of infection control and vaccinations to stop the disease from spreading to the rest of the population. Also contact tracing is done in order to identify possible source and potential victims.  When it is no longer possible to contain the spread of the disease, efforts then move to the mitigation stage: measures are taken to slow the spread and mitigate its effects on the healthcare system and society.

A combination of both containment and mitigation measures may be undertaken at the same time. Suppression requires more extreme measures so as to reverse the pandemic by reducing the basic reproduction number to less than 1. Part of managing an infectious disease outbreak is trying to decrease the epidemic peak, known as flattening the epidemic curve. This decreases the risk of over burdening of health services and provides more time for development of vaccines and treatments .




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