Principles Of Design

The principles of design serve as guidelines for the purpose of combining elements of design in garment. These principles are important because they create a harmonious design. They are flexible in terms of current fashion trends.

The Principles of design are :

  1. Proportion
  2. Balance
  3. Rhythm
  4. Emphasis
  5. Harmony

Proportion –

Proportion means as the pleasing relationship of the parts of a whole to the whole, and to each other. It is comparative relationship of distance, size, amount, degrees or parts. It can apply on one-dimensional line, two-dimensional shapes or three-dimensional forms. In a garment, silhouette is divided into construction lines, thereby creating spaces, which must relate to one another and to the whole garment in a pleasing way. Proportion is a synthesizing principle. Traditionally it deals mainly with lines, shapes and areas. Proportion is the size relationship of the areas of the body. The relationship between the areas can be explain in terms of numeric ratios. Generally, uneven ratios 1:3, 2:3 and 3:5 are the most interesting in designing. They nearly repeat the body proportions and divisions are interesting because they are not equal. Not all fashion trends are pleasingly proportional for all figures. 

Proportion establishes not only in parts of a garment but also in terms of the relationship between one garment and the other, such as tops and skirts, jackets and trousers and the rest. 

Basic Law of Proportion or The Golden Mean Law – 

  The mathematical formula for proportion establish by early Egyptians were 3:5:8, visible in a knee length skirt and top. 5:8:13, which can be seen in a long top which is enough to cover the hips with trousers.

 The golden mean ratio has been a subject of fascination for artists and mathematicians. The golden mean ratio occurs in nature and also a mathematical formula used by artists, designers, architects and even musicians in creating beauty. The magic ratio is technically 1.1688. But for artistic uses it’s often simplified to 1:1.5 or 2:3. The Swiss architect Le Corbusier believe that the golden mean ratio naturally appeal to the human eye. And people through time and space are drew to it whether they know it as mathematical formula or not. In addition, well proportion clothing has historically been based on the golden mean ratio. It is in both nature and man made structures.

 There are times during fashion cycles when proportions invert like when the hemline of tops and jackets are low, and less of lower garments, like skirts and trousers are visible. A proportionate garment design need to be complement with proportionate motifs, their positioning on the fabric and the background spaces, and its suitability to the wearer. 

   For instance-

  Indian ladies suits follow an inverse proportion system, which is visually pleasing; because the space divisions are those specific by the golden mean. Although mini skirts are design in poor proportion, they have a visual appeal as the length of long expose the legs or legs cover with stockings and flat shoes or medium heel is proportionately balance by the short garment. 

 Proportion and Body Size – 

In general, body size is divide into three categories – small, medium, and large and these categories are the guideline in selecting garments. It is important to follow the principle of proportion, according to which fabric designs, textures, and accessories should be in proportion with the body size. 

  • small-  statured people should not select large patterned fabrics and big accessories, as they overpower the personality of the wearer, due to inappropriate proportions. 
  • The medium-sized person has a much wider range of fabrics and accessories to choose from but should evaluate each item in terms of the body size.
  • In the same way, small-patterned fabrics and small accessories are in complete contrast with a large figure type, and emphasize the body size. 


               In Principles of design Balance is a state of equilibrium of the design part or balance is the concept of visual equilibrium and relates to our physical sense of balance. It is the equal distribution of weight- actual or visual. It is a reconciliation of opposing forces in a composition that results in visual stability. Balance refers to equal distribution of actual and visual weight about a central point. Where there is balance there is a pleasing relationship of all the parts from side to side and top to bottom. A sense of stability results. A garment must be balance to be visually pleasing. 

There are two basic types of balance – Symmetrical balance and Asymmetrical balance

  1. Symmetrical balance –  It means equal “weight” on equal side of centrally placed fulcrum. It also known as formal balance. When the elements are arrange equally on either side of a central axis, the result is bilateral symmetry. In case of symmetrical or formal balance, identical objects are place on either side of a real or imaginary central line. Therefore, one side is the exact mirror image of the other, such as the left and right side of the human body. The line can be horizontal or vertical. It is also possible to build formal balance by arranging elements equally around a central point, resulting in radial symmetry. 

                This is the most common feature in garments, as it is the easy to achieve and provides stability along with a pleasing , sober, and sophisticated look. A garment designed keeping formal balance in mind lacks creativity and tends to emphasize any body irregularity, if present; therefore, the designer needs to lay more emphasis on color, texture, and accessories.

Examples of symmetrical balance include all garments that have identical left and right-sides, such as trousers , cardigans, straight, skirt, princess line dress.

2. Asymmetrical balance – When the structure decoration and accessories are different both the sides from the center of the dress, it is called asymmetrical balance. It may also be called informal balance. It is more complex and difficult to visualize. In this, attraction is created on both sides by using different accessories. Asymmetrical or informal balance provides more excitement. In this case,the design composition is visually different on either side of the real or imaginary line but one part equalizes the other in weight, such as the front and backside of the human body while looking at the body from the side view.

    A designer is free to express his creativity while creating outfits with informal balance. A small interesting detail on one side can balance a larger uninteresting area on the other side. This balance helps in leading the eye away from the body irregularities and enhancing the beautiful parts of the body. Formal wears are mostly asymmetrical in design therefore, consumes more time and money for construction. 


   Rhythm is a sense of orderly movement. Rhythmic movement serves to unify the design provide a transition between areas of the garment, avoid conflicting areas of interest, and identify the centre of emphasis in a design. Rhythm is the most important principle of art. It is created by repeat use of design, the eye will move easily from one part to another. Rhythm can either be obvious or subtle. Rhythm establishes through repetition of lines or shapes or colors to give direction which the eye follows. It is necessary to create interest in a design and convey the theme of the design. Rhythm is an organised movement. gathers , pleats, buttons, and other details follow a rhythmic pattern which constitutes in Principles of design.

                              When dominant color, pattern, line or detail on the garment repeats on distinct locations with or without variations, then rhythm is maintain. Arrangement of the elements of design to produce rhythm can include repetition of lines, shapes, colors or textures; alteration of lines, shapes, colors, or textures; radiation of lines, shapes, colors or textural folds. Rhythm makes eye movement smooth. The principle of design that refers to a regular repetition of elements of art to produce the look and feel of movement. 

 Methods of Creating Rhythm – 

             There are 3 ways to create rhythm. They are –  

  1. Repetition – By repetition of lines, shapes colors or accessories rhythm can be made. Parallel lines are form by the use of seams, buttons, embroidery, lace etc. which helps uninterrupted eye movement. 
  1. Radiations – Radiant lines is use to produce rhythm. Gathers are use to create such lines. Eye moves easily from one part to the other on the small lines created by gathers. We can see such lines in gathers on necklines, arms and skirts.
  1. Gradation – Rhythm can be created by gradual change in lines, shapes, shades of the color. Gradation in light carpet on the floor changes gradually in value. 


      For Principles of design there is some portion in every dress which is the center of attraction. This portion is point of emphasis. Emphasis is the center of interest, which draw attention more than any other part. This center of interest should be one and should relate to the total garment design. Point of emphasis is related to body structure. Emphasis should be laid only on that body part which is most attractive. Every beautiful garment possesses an emphasis area which is dominant as compared to the other areas in the garment. It is placed on an area that needs to be highlighted. To lay emphasis, buttons, belts, laces etc of contrasting and dark colors may be used. Emphasis can lie on the portion repeat use of certain elements.

For example emphasis should be around the neck of a person with a beautiful face and on waistline for a person with slim waist. It should enhance the grace of the wearer and not the other way around. Emphasis occurs at the point of visual interest or contrast.

Emphasis is achieve by – 

  • Contrasting colors.
  • Bold and unusual shapes.
  • Eye catching patterns.
  • Complex textures.
  • Attractive design details.
  • Interesting trims.
  • And many other features.

The details emphasizing the face are very popular, such as the use of a bright colored scarf or necktie, collar in contrasting color, jewelry, and hats.


 In Principles of design Harmony is a relationship of different portions in a dress. Harmony is achieve through judicious use of colours, shapes and textures to give a feeling of oneness. Harmony in dressing relates to the total look where all elements of designing work together in garments, accessories, jewelry, and hairstyles to produce a visual effect that attracts and holds the attention of the observer. To achieve harmony, all design elements must be select and arrange to create a unified idea, concept or theme. This is the ultimate goal in any creative effort. It requires combining lines, shapes, colors and texture in a way that’s appropriate to the purpose. 

Principles of Harmony – 

A harmonious garment has consistency in terms of design elements such as silhouette, lines, color and texture. The following are the principle of harmony – 

  1. Silhouette of the garment should be in pleasing relationship with the wearer’s figure or body type.
  2. Style lines should be consistent on every area of the garment and on separate garments that are sold as coordinates. They should have compatible angles and compliment each other when present on different areas of a garment.
  3. All areas of the garment should reflect the same shape so that the continuity of the design does no break.
  4. Patterns on the fabric should be use skillfully to make an attractive garment. Stripes and plaids should always match the garment parts unless used as a design feature. 
  5. Similar or contrasting textures should be use in a pleasing combination to add variety in a garment.
  6. Unity in color combination should be there and the color should be perfect for the person, season and occasion. 
  7. Avoid small difference in the hem length of sleeves and garment ends. As they interfere with the horizontal movement of the eye.

That’s all for the Principles of design. If you have any query you can comment below.



How do thoughts become things?

I’m sure we all have heard that thoughts become things, and at some point in our lives we have had some experiences which prove this. We quite often say this to ourselves that whatever I was thinking, exactly the same thing has happened. Answer to how this happens is, the thoughts which excites us the most, which are most interesting to a us and which are recurrent, we tend to follow them and our actions are in accordance with them hence giving us the result. This is how thoughts become things.

Well, human mind is complex. At a time, a lot of different thoughts are running in our minds. According to a study there are 50,000-70,000 thoughts that come in our mind each day. And if we do the math it means we get 52-72 thoughts a minute, that is approximately 1 thought per second. I think these are a lot thoughts to deal with, in a particular day.

How a person processes them determines his state of mind. If negative thoughts outnumber positive ones, then the person suffers from depression and if positive thoughts outnumber negative ones then the person is happy. Our thought processing determines how we feel . The kind of thoughts that run in our mind influences the release of certain chemicals in our brains which causes us to feel a particular way.

Taking example from science, there is a phenomenon known as Resonance . It the tendency of a system to vibrate with increasing amplitudes at some frequency of oscillation. I think this applies to our thinking process as well. A lot of negative thinking will attract negativity in our lives, likewise positive thinking will attract positivity. 

‘The Secret’ emphasizes a great deal on how Thoughts become things. The book focuses on the power of positive thinking and how like attracts like. It mentions that if we think positive , then positive energies will be emitted from our mind and we will attract more positivity from the universe.

Our thinking process also determine, the way of life we are living. So by controlling it we can lead the life we want to live. From my own experience, its simple concept but very difficult to follow. But human mind is great , if we convince ourselves then nothing is difficult to achieve. Hence by thinking positive we can translate positive thinking to positive actions thereby attracting positive results.


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 Silhouette is a form which projects one solid color against the background of another colour, therefore the shape is visible. It is the outline of the whole garment. It is the most dominant visual element of a garment and the first thing visible from a distance. Silhouette also helps in forming first impressions of the garment, which may or may not be appealing to the eye. Silhouette in garment is dependent on the position and direction of horizontal and vertical lines in a garment, which decides its length width proportions. Moreover, design detail like collars and sleeves add on to the look.

 A silhouette worn must complement the body type. Each has its highlighted features in terms of specific part of the garment that is sleeves, waistline and shoulders.

  Definition –

   According to the Debester Dictionary, it is a two-dimensional representation of the  outline of an object.

 Types of Silhouette –

  1. Sheath –

It is the form of the silhouette which is fits from top to the bottom of the garment. The way it hug the body make it an unforgiving style to those without perfect figure as it emphasise waist. A defined waist is prerequisite to look good. This style is usually fitting. Slits are introduce. Example pencil skirts.                          

2. A-line – 

                      Fitted in the bodice and flared slightly in the skirt, making it look like a ‘A’. A garment in this silhouette widens towards ‘hems’ in gradual manner, smoothes out awkward lines and curves of the body.

3. Hourglass –

                  This silhouette is characterise by a fitted waistline. This is a very popular silhouette which emphasises the curves of feminine figure. This can be design with the help of belts, darts, waist bands. The highlight of this silhouette is the waistline. Wedding gowns are construct based on this silhouette with a fitted waist.

4. Bell –

    Also known as ball-gown. It is fits till the waist further flares generally at hem to make a bell-shaped skirt. Typically found in traditional wedding dresses. It is a choice of young women for wedding dress.

5. Mermaid –

        Also known as trumpet. It is similar to sheath type but flares like a ball gown from the knees. However it is undoubtedly a very beautiful silhouette and hem worth the sacrifice but uncomfortable for movement .

6. Shoulder-Wedge –

                                                 This type emphasizes the shoulder. To make this silhouette emphasise the shoulder using additional designs. For instance shoulder pads, puff sleeves or butterfly style etc.

  1. Trapeze or Tent –

                                             It looks A-lined but with pronounced flare towards hem. It has shaped like a trapezoid or tent. Therefore, this type is good for short dresses however difficult in long dresses.

8. Asymmetrical –

                                          This has a diagonal hem line. This effect is achieve by varying the colors, fabrics etc.

Importance –

  1. It emphasize as well alter woman’s shape.
  2. They can create flattering illusion.
  3. It can meet the dress code for different occasions.

Connect your Android phone wirelessly by adb

Android Debug Bridge (adb) is a versatile command-line tool that lets you communicate with Android phone or device. On how to Connect your android phone wirelessly by adb you can follow below steps.

Setting up environment variable for adb platform tools by Android sdk

  • For this I am considering you have already installed the latest version of Android studio. If not you can download it from here.
  • You can get the sdk location from.
Connect your android phone wirelessly by adb
Sdk location from sdk manager

You can set the platform tools path in environment variable (optional).

Now, go to the skd location/platform-tools from cmd. Process the following command to

Connect your android phone wirelessly by adb

  • Make sure your device and pc connected to same network.
  • plug in the data cable from pc to device.
  • Now, type adb tcpip 5555
  • remove data cable.
  • Then type adb connect
  • here 5555 is the port number and is the ip address of the mobile device you can get id address from the mobile settings . Then go to About device and go to status you can see the ip address of the device.
  • You can connect multiple device from different ports which can give ease in development.

Hope, It works if not don’t forgot to comment below .

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Add Firebase Mobile Authentication

Why we need to add Firebase mobile Authentication in Android Application?

Mobile authentication is much needed nowadays to verify the user authentic information land to remove the fake users and to get the credibility of the user. You can easily track the user by the mobile number and put all checks to you’r system. Someone can put a random number and access you’r data which will hurt you’r business and put you’r data at much higher risk.

1- First you need to add the android app to Firebase Console if not done yet you can get through this from here.

2- Go to Firebase console > Authentication > Sign In Methods and enable phone authentication.

Firebase mobile authentication

You can also add testing numbers for development purpose and the authentication key . So let’s get started on add Firebase mobile authentication android on android studio.

3- For production purpose you also need to add the SHA 1 certificate fingerprints. To get the fingerprints go to project > gradle > project > android > signin reports then you can get the fingerprint from bottom on the screen (optional).

Firebase authentication
Get SHA 1 from android studio

In app build.gradle you need to add.

implementation ''.

Then in where user enter the mobile number and country code to request the otp.

package com.example.sampleproject;


import android.content.Intent;
import android.os.Bundle;
import android.view.View;
import android.widget.Button;
import android.widget.EditText;


import java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit;

public class MainActivity extends AppCompatActivity {

private PhoneAuthProvider.OnVerificationStateChangedCallbacks mCallbacks;
private FirebaseAuth mAuth;
private Helper helper;
private UserModel mUser = new UserModel();
protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
helper= new Helper(this);
Button bt_login = (Button) findViewById(;
final EditText et_mobile_no = (EditText) findViewById(;
final EditText et_country_code = (EditText) findViewById(;

bt_login.setOnClickListener(new View.OnClickListener() {
public void onClick(View v) {
String mobile_no = et_mobile_no.getText().toString();
String country_code = et_country_code.getText().toString();
String mobileNumber = country_code+mobile_no;

private void phoneAuth() {
mAuth= FirebaseAuth.getInstance();

mCallbacks = new PhoneAuthProvider.OnVerificationStateChangedCallbacks() {
public void onVerificationCompleted(PhoneAuthCredential credential) {
helper.display( "Verification complete" );
String sms_code=credential.getSmsCode();
PhoneAuthCredential credentials = credential;


public void onVerificationFailed(FirebaseException e) {
helper.display(" Verification Failed");
if (e instanceof FirebaseAuthInvalidCredentialsException) {
helper.display("Invalid phone number.");
} else if (e instanceof FirebaseTooManyRequestsException) {
helper.display( "Quota exceeded");

public void onCodeSent(String verificationId,
PhoneAuthProvider.ForceResendingToken token) {
helper.display( "Verification code send");

Intent intent = new Intent(MainActivity.this, VerifyOtp.class);
intent.putExtra("user_details", mUser);
intent.putExtra("user_token", token);


public void onCodeAutoRetrievalTimeOut(String s) {

void createNewUser(String phoneNumber){

phoneNumber, // Phone number to verify
60, // Timeout duration
TimeUnit.SECONDS, // Unit of timeout
this, // Activity (for callback binding)
mCallbacks); // OnVerificationStateChangedCallbacks


Now, Verify the opt process in VerifyOtp class.

package com.example.sampleproject;

import android.content.Intent;
import android.os.Bundle;


import androidx.annotation.NonNull;
import android.util.Log;
import android.view.View;
import android.widget.Button;
import android.widget.EditText;


public class VerifyOtp extends AppCompatActivity {

private String TAG = "VerifyOtp";
private UserModel mUserModel;
private FirebaseAuth mAuth;
private Helper helper;

protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
mAuth= FirebaseAuth.getInstance();
helper = new Helper(this);
Button bt_submit = (Button)findViewById(;
final EditText et_otp = (EditText)findViewById(;
Intent intent = getIntent();

if (intent != null) {

Serializable userSerializable = intent.getSerializableExtra("user_details");

mUserModel = (UserModel) userSerializable;
if(mUserModel!=null) {

}else {

bt_submit.setOnClickListener(new View.OnClickListener() {
public void onClick(View v) {
String otp = et_otp.getText().toString();

PhoneAuthCredential credential = PhoneAuthProvider.getCredential(mUserModel.getVerificationId(), otp.trim());

private void signInWithPhoneAuthCredential(PhoneAuthCredential credential) {
.addOnCompleteListener(this, new OnCompleteListener<AuthResult>() {
public void onComplete(@NonNull Task<AuthResult> task) {
if (task.isSuccessful()) {
helper.display("Sign in successfully");
final FirebaseUser firebase_user = task.getResult().getUser();
Log.d(TAG, "onComplete: "+firebase_user.getPhoneNumber());
} else {
helper. display( "Unable to sign in");
if (task.getException() instanceof FirebaseAuthInvalidCredentialsException) {
helper. display("Invalid code");


You can use other sign in methods available in Firebase Authentication.

Also you can download the code from here.

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Mystery of Earth not revolving around the Moon

There is a famous saying by Newton, “What we know is a drop; what we don’t know is an ocean.” This great physicist of all time is a true genius ever to be born. He gave us the famous law of gravitation, the laws of motion, calculus and much more to cherish. Although there is a lot to learn from Newton, we will aim to understand the motion of the moon around the earth in the lines which follow.
We all know that the moon revolves around the earth, but what makes it revolve around the earth, and why wouldn’t the earth revolve around the moon? Or say, why wouldn’t just like the earth, the moon revolve around the sun? Why do the planets revolve around the sun, and why do the moons of planets revolve around that particular planet only? Baffling questions which make us wonder about the celestial bodies and their behavior. So, let’s get to the bottom of the problem and try to figure out how these astronomical bodies have been working perfectly and constantly day in and day out for millions of years.
This system of the moon revolving around a planet is based on the concept of center of mass. But what is center of mass? Well, the center of mass is the point around which two planets have their orbits.
If two bodies have equal masses, then the center of mass is located in the middle of them. This is the case with Pluto and its natural satellite Charon. It’s also the case of binary asteroids and the stars. But if one of the bodies is heavier than the other, then the center of mass shifts closer to the heavier body. Just like in the earth–moon system, the earth is much heavier as compared to the moon, and as a result, the center of mass of the earth–moon system lies inside the earth at a distance of about 4300 km—which is approximately 75% of the earth’s radius—from the center of the earth. So, we are unable to see the orbital motion of the earth around the center of mass, but the moon is at a considerable distance from the center of mass of the earth–moon system. Hence, its orbital motion is quite visible.
Now let’s come to the question of why the moons of different planets are still revolving around their planet and not attracted towards the sun, which is much more massive than the planets. The law of gravitation says that the larger the mass of the object, the greater would be the force of attraction between the objects. Interestingly, the sun contains about 99.8% mass of the solar system. So, shouldn’t it be able to snatch the moon away from the earth? It’s true that the sun attracts the moon with twice the gravitational force as compared to the earth, yet the moon doesn’t leave the earth but continues to faithfully orbit around it. This happens because every planet has a region with which it dominates the attraction of its satellite. This special region is called the hill sphere. So, to be retained by a planet, a moon should lie within the planet’s hill sphere. In more precise terms, the hill sphere approximates the gravitational sphere of influence of a smaller body when faced with perturbation from a more massive body. The hill sphere of the earth is about 1.5 million km and the moon revolves around the earth at about 0.384 million km. So, our beloved moon is not going to be pulled by the sun. It’s safely ours. This same theory applies to every planet and its many moons.

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Android app pass data between activities

Passing Data types like String, Integer, Float, double is quite easy in android so we don’t need any special class for this. But for Android pass model from intents using Serializable from intents we need Serializable class.

What is Modal Class

Model can be applied to a class which represents your application’s data model, and will cause instances of the class to become observable, such that a read of a property of an instance of this class during the invocation of a composable function will cause that component to be “subscribed” to mutations of that instance. Composable functions which directly or indirectly read properties of the model class, the composables will be recomposed whenever any properties of the the model are written to.

What is Serializable?

It is a standard Java interface. So you can just implement Serializable interface and add override methods.

There are pros and cons of this class. It is comparatively slow and easy to integrate.

To immplements simple Data types we can just pass ‘Xyz’ by key ‘name’.

Intent intent = new Intent(MainActivity.this, DataActivity.class);
intent.putExtra("name","Xyz");// for string variable 

And in data activity to fetch the data by key ‘name’.

Intent intent = getIntent();
intent.getStringExtra("name");// to fetch data

But for passing objects or model class we need serialization.

So let’s get started on how Android app pass data between activities.

For this section I have created MainActivity, DataActivity and UserModel to achieve the task.

To send the model class from MainActivity to DataActivity class by using Serializable class.

package com.example.sampleproject;


import android.content.Intent;
import android.os.Bundle;
import android.view.View;
import android.widget.Button;

public class MainActivity extends AppCompatActivity {

    protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {

        ((Button)findViewById( View.OnClickListener() {
            public void onClick(View v) {
                UserModel mUser = new UserModel();

                Intent intent = new Intent(MainActivity.this, DataActivity.class);
                intent.putExtra("user", mUser);


To fetch the model class from main activity.

package com.example.sampleproject;

import android.content.Intent;
import android.os.Bundle;


import androidx.appcompat.widget.Toolbar;

import android.util.Log;
import android.view.View;


public class DataActivity extends AppCompatActivity {

    private String TAG = "DataActivity";

    protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        Toolbar toolbar = findViewById(;

        FloatingActionButton fab = findViewById(;
        fab.setOnClickListener(new View.OnClickListener() {
            public void onClick(View view) {
                Snackbar.make(view, "Replace with your own action", Snackbar.LENGTH_LONG)
                        .setAction("Action", null).show();

        Intent intent = getIntent();
        if (intent != null) {

            Serializable s = intent.getSerializableExtra("user");
            UserModel mUserModel = (UserModel) s;
            if(mUserModel!=null) {
                int id = mUserModel.getId();
                String name = mUserModel.getName();
                String mobile = mUserModel.getMobile();
                Log.d(TAG, "id: "+id);
                Log.d(TAG, "name: "+name);
                Log.d(TAG, "mobile: "+mobile);
            }else {



Model which is shared between the MainActivity and DataActivity class.

You can also add child model or list of UserModel class just you have to implements that model by Serializable.

package com.example.sampleproject;


public class UserModel implements Serializable {

    private int id;
    private String name;
    private String mobile;

    public void setId(int id) { = id;

    public int getId() {
        return id;

    public void setName(String name) { = name;

    public String getName() {
        return name;

    public void setMobile(String mobile) { = mobile;

    public String getMobile() {
        return mobile;

Output of Android app pass data between activities:

The output of this code will look like this.

id: 1.
name: Xyz.
mobile: 99919290XX.

You can also see this post where I have passed a model class between activities by using intents from here.

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Colors is the visual feeling which is corresponding in humans to the categories called red, yellow, blue and other properties of color are.

  • The physical specification of color are associate with objects, materials and light sources based on their physical properties like light absorption and reflection are the properties of colors.
  • There are 3 dimensions of colour hue, value and intensity or chroma.
  • It is a major concern in all aspects.
  • It is calmingly an increasingly important part of modern living.
  • There are two things an external occurrence and an internal sensation.

Dimensions of Colors

 Hue –  Hue refers to the name of the colors. By using the term hue we distinguish one color from the other. It is the quality which separates colors from each other. It is the contrast between redness, blueness and greenness. For eg. red, blue, green, yellow, these are the name of colors which separates them from the rest. 

Value –Value refers to the lightness or darkness of the colors. When color is mixed with white forms tints or light shades. When mixed with black it form dark shades of that particular hue. The hues are located somewhere in between the extremes of the white and black in value scale. Every hue or a color wheel has its own vale level known as normal or home value. For example when white is added in blue (hue) it will form the tint of blue or sky blue shade. When black is added to the same hue it will form dark blue or navy blue.

 Intensity / chroma –intensity refers to the purity and impurity of a hue. It is the difference between a strong colour and weak colour. The more pure a hue will be the more intensity it may contain. It is sometimes known as chroma. It is the brightness or dullness of a hue. Bright colours have high and dull colours have low intensity.

Properties of colors and theory

  1.  Prang Colour Theory

       In prang color theory there are 12 colours in the colour wheel.

Color wheel – Color wheel are logical combination of colors on it. The purpose of the it is to create an aesthetic feeling of style and appeal.

 Primary colours –Primary colours are equal distance apart on the color wheel. They are “primary” as no color combination can create such colors.

 Secondary colours – Colors halfway between the primary colors. Created by mixing two primary colors together. Orange, green, violet or purple.

Tertiary colours – These are hues intermediary between primary and secondary hues. Created by mixing one primary with one secondary colors. Red – orange, yellow – orange, blue – green, yellow – green, blue – violet and red – violet.

  1. Mansell Colours Theory –

             It was created by Albert H. Munsell. According to Mansell colour theory there are total 10 fundamental colors which are divided into 2 parts.5 colour principles and 5 intermediate colours.

     5 colour  principle or the main colours are –1. Red          2. Yellow        3.    Blue     4. Green     5. Violet.

    5 intermediate colours are –  1. Red – yellow     2. Blue – green   3. Violet – red    4. Blue – violet    5. Yellow – green.

      This theory is based on the dimensions of colours i.e; hue, value and chroma or intensity.

 Color Scheme –

Monochromatic color scheme –

                    Mono means one and one pure must be the key tone of the harmonious color scheme. Monochromatic scheme is the easiest to design as well as most comfortable because it compose of like colors. The key success to this scheme is to use enough contrast through hue and intensity to make it attractive. This scheme is restful to the eye.

 Analogous color scheme –

                   Colors that are next to each other on the wheel frequently provide the basis of very pleasing combinations. Blue, blue-violet and violet has enjoyed tremendous scheme. Analogous colour schemes are often found in nature and are harmonious and pleasing to the eye. Yellow, yellow-green and green with different values and intensities of adjacent colours will make analogous colour scheme.

Complementary colour scheme –

                                   Colours that are opposite to each other on the colour wheel are considered to be complementary colours. For e.g, red and green. High contrast of complementary colour scheme creates a vibrant look particularly when used at full saturation. Therefore, scheme must be managed so it not jarring.

  • Split complementary colour scheme –

              The split complementary colour scheme is the variation of complementary colour scheme. In this addition to the base colour, it uses the two analogous colours adjacent to its complement. This colour scheme has the same strong visual contrast as the complementary colour scheme but has less tension. It makes an arrow “Y”on the colour wheel. For example – orange, green and blue-violet. It is also known as compound harmony.

Double complementary colour scheme –

                                             Superimposing a narrow ‘X’ on the colour wheel we get the two sets of complementary colours to work with. Four colours might be confusing in a small area, but they promote variety in colours. It is therefore known as tetrad colour scheme.

 Triad colour scheme

 A triangle is placed on the colour wheel will give three colours that form the triad. The primary colours like red, yellow and blue.

Psychological effects of color –

                 Colors profoundly affect our mood and temperament. A fact that a sensitive designer use to impair the mood of the garment and the wearer. A considerable literature has evolved on the psychology and symbolism of color. Some work claim to assess personality traits according to color preference, other analyse color symbolism in terms of behaviour. For example, in many western cultures white is the bridal color symbolising purity and innocence. While in India the proper bridal color is red. Likewise in Western use black for mourning ,whereas, some cultures use white. Colors convey strong emotional meaning to an audience . These are the extra Properties of colors.

 Color Psychology: White

  • purity
  • innocence
  • cleanliness
  • sense of space
  • neutrality
  • mourning (in some cultures/societies)

Color Psychology: The Color Black

  • authority
  • power
  • strength
  • evil
  • intelligence
  • thinning / slimming
  • death or mourning

Color Psychology: The Color Gray

  • neutral
  • timeless
  • practical

Color Psychology: The Color Red

  • love
  • romance
  • gentle
  • warmth
  • comfort
  • energy
  • excitement
  • intensity
  • life
  • blood

Color Psychology: Orange

  • happy
  • energetic
  • excitement
  • enthusiasm
  • warmth
  • wealth prosperity
  • sophistication
  • change
  • stimulation

Color Psychology: Yellow

  • happiness
  • laughter
  • cheery
  • warmth
  • optimism
  • hunger
  • intensity
  • frustration
  • anger
  • attention-getting

Color Psychology: Green

  • natural
  • cool
  • growth
  • money
  • health
  • envy
  • tranquility
  • harmony
  • calmness
  • fertility

Psychology of Blue

  • calmness
  • serenity
  • cold
  • uncaring
  • wisdom
  • loyalty
  • truth
  • focused
  • unappetizing

Psychology of Purple

  • royalty
  • wealth
  • sophistication
  • wisdom
  • exotic
  • spiritual
  • prosperity
  • respect
  • mystery

Psychology of Brown

  • reliability
  • stability
  • friendship
  • sadness
  • warmth
  • comfort
  • security
  • natural
  • organic
  • mourning (in some cultures/societies)

Psychology of Pink

  • romance
  • love
  • gentle
  • calming
  • Agitation

reference click


Texture means the surface quality of an object- how it looks, feels and performs. Texture describes the surface or tactile quality of a material, its degree of smoothness or roughness. The word texture describes the nature of the surface. The word ‘texture’ comes from the latin word meaning to weave. In fashion designing texture refers to the surface of fabrics or trimmings used in the garments. It is the most important element of design because people first get attract by the colour of the garment then automatically reach out to the texture whether they will feel comfortable or not. Texture is also define as a visual and tangible structure of a surface or substance. Texture appeals to not just one, but three of our senses ; touch, sight and hearing. Texture affects the look of a garment, the feel, influence the appearance of the person wearing the garment. Texture , basically connected to the weave of the fabric.

Factors affecting texture in textile

All the fabric textures, from the purest chiffon to the bulkiest fleece to the solid canvas, depend on variations of only four factors :-

Fibre content –

Fibre content is the generic or family name like, wool, nylon, rayon, polyester etc.. They are the substance from which the yarn and fabrics are made. The length, chemical composition, shape and performance are characteristics of a fibre which greatly influence the final texture. Natural fibres such as – cotton, wool, silk etc; man-made fibres and synthetic fibres such as rayon, nylon, polyester, acetate, olefin etc. Long filament fibres such as silk and synthetics give shinier, smoother and cooler touch and sometimes stronger fabrics. Short staple fibres such as cotton, wool etc, give relatively duller, rougher, fuzzier and warmer touch and sometimes weaker fabrics. Some fibres or combination of fibres contributes to static electricity which results in clinging garments. Functional qualities such as- resiliency or elasticity, absorbency, heat conductivity, shrinkage control, resistance to fire, insects acids, alkalies etc all depends upon the fibre.

Yarn structure –

Yarn is the intermediary state between fibres and fabrics. Fibres have spun into yarn in the next step of making fabrics. The fibres have spun and twisted in either ‘S’ or ‘Z’ direction to form a yarn. The amount of yarn twisted influence the surface and hand. High twisted yarns contribute to hard-surface, smooth, strong and somewhat elastic fabrics. The soft-surfaced yarns results from the low-twisted yarns. The direction of the twist is also important ‘S’ or ‘Z’ twist. The number of strand a yarn has twisted together influences the textural thickness and strength. Generally, the higher the strands, the stronger the yarn is. The thickness of the yarn influences how many strands can be used and consequently the fineness or coarseness of a texture. Novelty yarns create interesting surface. Elastic and high bulky yarns introduce other tactile effects and performance.

Fabric structure –

Fabric structure is the way fibrous yarns are interlock into a flat fabric. Varieties in fabric structure provide the most dramatic most easily seen difference in the texture. The structure cause by film, felt, or made of various fibres bond directly to each other without first being spun, it could be net, lace, braid, knit or woven. Weaving generally gives the strongest and most stable fabric structure.

Grains –

The direction of the yarn, also called grain, both woven and non-woven fabrics have grain. Woven fabrics or grain,with lengthwise and crosswise yarns straight, and interwoven at right angles, lace,net and felt lack this flexibility of grain, but hold crisps shapes better. Grain is critical to shaping and draping effects.

Combination of fabric structure –

          These create new textural potential but need caution. If two fibres are bonded or laminated together, they produce a thicker, stronger texture but their joining must be permanent on grain and their care and performance quality is compatible. They rarely serve well in garments destined for stress and strain.

Finishes –

          Chemical or mechanical finishes which use heat, pressure and/or chemicals may either affect the fabric surface or penetrate the fibre. Some finishes are primary for appearance, such as bleaching, embossing, flocking, glazing etc. Some finishes affect both visual and tactile qualities  such as singering, napping, shearing, puckering and seizing. With their advantages, finishes may also create undesired side effects which the industry constantly strives to reduce.

What words describe texture ?

 Loopy, fuzzy, furry, soft, shiny, dull, bulky, rough, crip,smooth and sheer.

Why texture is important in fashion ?

 It can increase or decrease the body size, it can draw added attention to a design.

Sometimes we can add texture to the fabric by adding stitched details, pin tucks and embellishments as well. While choosing texture do give in the tests – tactile and visual, some texture can only be felt, but commonly textures can be distinguish visually. Not all textures that are visually appealing can be worn. To wear or drape attires you have to be alert about the feel of the texture – if you are not comfortable wearing a certain texture.


Forms is defined as a 3- dimensional area enclosed by a surface. If the form is hollow we often perceive the interior as volume, if it is solid, the interior is described as mass. Forms may be created using a combination of two or more shapes. Shapes and forms as visual design elements are fascinating and challenging because they are so malleable. It is a 3-D element of design and has length, width and height. Form is volume and enclosed by a surface, we are remained. They have power to evoke feelings similar to those of line

 It adds another dimension to shape. A circle is a flat two-dimensional shape. When you add the shading that transforms the circle into a sphere it takes on three-dimensional form like a ball you could throw or bounce.Basic forms are three-dimensional figures including spheres, cubes, cylinders, pyramids and cones. If an object has height, width and depth it is a form.

 A form is negative or positive. A brick-shaped indentation in a wall is a negative form while an exposed brick is a positive form. Form can also be static or dynamic. Static means still, so a ball resting on the table is static. A dynamic form suggests motion such as a ball flying across the room.


 Equal forms

  • It include sphere and cube.

Unequal forms

  •  It include cone, cylinder, bell, pyramid, cuboid, dome, barrel, hour glass etc.

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